Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Paras Kromium dalam Kalangan Petani di Daerah Bachok dan Pasir Puteh, Kelantan

Nurfariha Firdaus, Ismarulyusda Ishak, Syarif Husin Lubis, Nooraisyah Mansoor, Hidayatul Fathi Othman, Nihayah Mohammad, Zariyantey Abdul Hamid, Nurzakiah Mohd Saat, Mohd Jamil Rafaai, Mohamad Roff Mohd Noor


Chromium is an essential mineral and cofactor for insulin that plays an important role as hormone that helps in the blood sugar regulation. Kelantanese were known as sugar-based food consumer. Farmers have high risk of health problem because of exposure to pesticide and sugar-based food intake can give an effect on the level of chromium. The objective of this research was to study the status of chromium among farmers exposed to pesticides and fertilizer in Kelantan. This was a cross-sectional study that was done at Bachok and Pasir Puteh, Kelantan. Respondent were 113 farmers who had been exposed to pesticides or fertilizer for not less than one year. Subjects were interviewed to obtain information on their demographic data by using validated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. Nails and hair chromium levels were analyzed by using acid digestion method and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Results showed that 81.4% were male while 18.6% were female. Farmer’s chromium level in nails (125.82 ± 47.81 μg/L) and hair (39.63 ± 5.70 μg/L) were very much lower when compared with standard value in nails (6200 μg/L) and hair (100-2500 μg/L). No signifi cantly differences (p > 0.05) were found between chromium level according to gender, age, level of pesticide exposure, dietary chromium intake and blood glucose. Chromium levels in nails and hair of farmers who smoke was signifi cantly lower (p < 0.05) than non-smoking farmers. As a conclusion, the level of chromium among farmers in Bachok and Pasir Puteh, Kelantan are lower than normal reference and farmers should stop smoking because smoking can lower the chromium level.


DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/JSKM-2014-1202-04


Chromium; farmers; pesticides; Kelantan; hair; nails

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