Cytotoxicity, Regulation of Apoptotic and Anti-apoptotic Gene Expression by IL-27 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Lines

YAP WEI BOON, SHAKTYPREYA NADARAJAH, NADIAH SHIDIK, NOORJAHAN BANU MOHAMMED ALITHEEN

Abstract


Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancers among women. Conventional therapies cause adverse side effects in patients. Cytokine immunotherapy such as interleukin-27 (IL-27) has been sought as an alternative cancer treatment in recent years. IL-27 has been shown to improve anticancer immunity and anti-angiogenesis in cancers, however, its effect on apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression especially in breast cancers is yet to be explored. Cytotoxicity of IL-27 in non-cancerous (184b5) and cancerous breast cell lines was first determined for 24-72 h in this study. The results indicated that IL-27 treatment did not retard 184b5 cell growth, however, did inhibit MCF-7 (48 h) and MDAMB-231 (72 h) cell growth with IC50 at 442 and 457 ng/ml, respectively. Apoptotic (TRAIL, FADD, FAS, caspase-3 and caspase-8) and anti-apoptotic (BCL-2, AKT, and COX-2) genes were then amplified from untreated (control) and treated breast cancer cells and studied. TRAIL, caspase-3, caspase-8 gene expression was significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated in treated MCF-7 (442 ng/ml) and MDA-MB-231 (457 ng/ml) cells. Expression of FADD and FAS genes was not detected in both control and treated MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. COX-2 gene was also not expressed by MCF-7 cells, but reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in treated MDA-MB-231 cells. In MDA-MB-231 cells, IL-27 treatment seemed to slightly enhance the expression of AKT and BCL-2 genes which, on the other hand, was downregulated in treated MCF-7 cells. Conclusively, IL-27 is able to inhibit breast cancer cell growth and regulate apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression in breast cancer cells.

Keywords


IL-27; cytokine immunotherapy; triple negative breast cancer; invasive ductal breast cancer

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