Kesahan dan Kebolehpercayaan Instrumen Kualiti Kehidupan Kerja Guru (Validity and Reliability of Teachers’ Working Life Quality Instrument)

LAY KOON TAN, HAZRI JAMIL, NORDIN ABDUL RAZAK

Abstract


Kualiti kehidupan kerja dapat meningkatkan produktiviti, prestasi dan kesetiaan pekerja terhadap organisasi. Dalam konteks pendidikan, instrumen untuk mengukur kualiti kehidupan kerja guru yang bersesuaian dengan norma pendidikan di Malaysia amat diperlukan. Kajian tinjauan ini bertujuan menguji kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan instrumen Kualiti Kehidupan Kerja Guru (KKKG). Soal selidik telah diedarkan kepada 150 guru yang dipilih secara rawak mudah. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis faktor penerokaan. Pengekstrakan dan putaran Varimax menghasilkan lima komponen dengan nilai varians kumulatif 67.99 peratus. Daripada 22 item, 2 item yang mempunyai faktor muatan kurang daripada 0.36 telah digugurkan. Instrumen akhir mengandungi 20 item yang mempunyai kesahan konstruk yang baik. Lima konstruk dengan faktor muatan antara 0.42-0.91 telah dibentuk, iaitu: i) keperluan keselamatan fizikal, ii) keperluan keselamatan psikologi, iii) keperluan sosial, iv) keperluan penghormatan kendiri, dan v) keperluan perkembangan kendiri. Analisis kebolehpercayaan mendapati nilai pekali Cronbach’s Alpha untuk kelima-lima konstruk KKKG adalah di antara 0.63 hingga 0.83. Kajian ini menyumbangkan sebuah instrumen yang mempunyai ciri-ciri psikometrik yang baik dan sesuai dengan konteks pendidikan di Malaysia. Instrumen ini boleh digunakan oleh pentadbir pendidikan untuk mengenal pasti tahap KKKG dan seterusnya menganjurkan program yang bersesuaian untuk meningkatkan kualiti kehidupan kerja guru-guru.

Key Words: Kualiti Kehidupan Kerja Guru; Analisis Faktor Penerokaan (EFA); kesahan; kebolehpercayaan; pengesahan instrumen

 

Quality of working life can increase productivity, performance and employee loyalty to the organization. In the education context, an instrument to measure teachers’ quality of working life that is suitable with Malaysian educational norms is essential. This survey aims to test the validity and reliability of the Teacher Working Life Quality (KKKG) instrument. Questionnaires were distributed to 150 randomly selected teachers. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. The extraction and Varimax rotation resulted in five components with cumulative variance value of 67.99 percent. From 22 items initially, 2 items with factor load of less than 0.36 were dropped. The final instrument contains 20 items with good construct validity. Five constructs with factor load between 0.42-0.91 were formed, namely i) physical safety needs, ii) psychological safety needs, iii) social needs, iv) self-esteem needs, and v) self-development needs. Reliability analysis found that the value of Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for the five KKKG constructs was between 0.63 to 0.83. This study contributes an instrument that has good psychometric characteristics and is appropriate for the Malaysian educational context. This instrument can be used by education administrators to identify the level of KKKG and subsequently organize appropriate programs to improve the quality of work life of teachers.

Key Words: Teachers’ quality of working life; Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA); validity; reliability; instrument validation


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/JPEN-2020-45.02-01

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