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Author Guidelines


Manuscript (in English or Bahasa Melayu) must be original and must not have been previously published or be under concurrent consideration elsewhere.

All submissions to MJE are handled electronically. Manuscripts must be submitted online via Open Journal Systems (OJS), a fully web-based submission, peer review and tracking systems at Upon submission authors should specify to which section the paper belongs.

New Authors: If you are submitting via this new system for the first time, you will first be required to register. From the account you create, you will be able to monitor your submission and make subsequent submissions.

Authors whose manuscript has been accepted for publication will be asked to send an electronic file (in the form of .doc format) of the final edited version of the manuscript. While a manuscript is under consideration, be sure to inform the editor of any change of address.



It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that his or her submitted works do not infringe any existing copyright. Furthermore, the author indemnifies the editors and publisher against any breach of such a warranty. Authors should obtain letters of permission to reproduce or adapt copyright material and enclose copies of these letters with the final version of the accepted manuscript.



Manuscripts are subject to a double-blind review process and are reviewed by at least two independent reviewers. Decisions regarding the publication of a manuscript are based on the recommendations of these reviews. Reviewers evaluate manuscript based on their appropriateness for the Journal, significance of contribution to the discipline, conceptual adequacy, technical adequacy, and clarity of presentation.



Authors should prepare their manuscript according to the guidelines provided in this section. Manuscripts not prepared according to these guidelines may be returned for revision before any editorial consideration.


1. Typing

Manuscript should be typed double-space on only one side for the paper. The type on paper should be clear and readable. Use wide margins of at least 1 inch (2.54 cm) at the top, bottom, right and left of every page.


2. Title Page and Abstract

Each copy of a manuscript must include a separate title page, which should be the first page of the manuscript. The title of a manuscript should be concise, descriptive and preferably not exceeding 15 words. Articles in Bahasa Melayu should also provide an English title.

The title page should contain the title of the paper and the author’s name, affiliation, address, phone number, fax number and e-mail address. Any author notes (e.g., acknowledgements, disclaimers, special agreement concerning authorship, special circumstances regarding the study) should be typed on the title page also. The title page will be removed before the manuscript is sent out for the review.

All manuscripts must include an abstract within 150- 200 words (one version in the English language and one version in Bahasa Melayu). For authors from outside of Malaysia, the editor will provide assistance in providing the Malay version of the abstract.  Type the two versions of the abstract together on a new page (i.e., the page after the title page). The manuscript should be provided with a maximum of 5 keywords.


3. Format and Style

Empirical based articles

In general, the contents should comprise of Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion and References.  The following highlights some of the elements that authors need to incorporate in the article. For the Introduction section, authors should situate the argument of the study in an existing literature base and suggest the potential significance of the study in terms of: filling the gap in the existing professional knowledge, literature and/or the potential of improved practice.  For the Methods section, authors should provide the theoretical support for the method, explain the general procedures used with respect to sample selection, instrumentation, data reduction and analysis techniques (quantitative and qualitative). For the Results and Discussion section, the authors should provide tables and figures that make the data accessible, giving illustrative examples, state the major findings and conclusions relating them to the research question(s), and state any practical issues that emerged in data collection, such as reliability, validity, generalizability/ transferability; depending on the context of the study. For the Conclusion section, authors should state the implication, significance and limitation of the study in an integrated manner.

Conceptual articles

A conceptual article should provide solid arguments towards answering one or more related questions.  The article should begin with a review of previous work on the chosen topic and authors should argue, provide evidence and examples that supports the author’s thesis relating to the questions. The article should illustrate the author’s subjective position towards the issues and questions that are under consideration.

Book review 

A book review should consists of 2,000 - 3,000 words. The author should review the book in terms of the strength and weakness by providing examples from the text. The book should be  analysed by drawing on one conceptual framework and its implications of research in the field of education.


4. Heading

Main heading should be used to designate the major sections of a paper. Centre main headings and type in all uppercase letters. Type secondary headings flush left using uppercase letters. Paragraph headings should be typed in lowercase letters (except for the first letter of the initial word). Do not break up a page to start a new heading.


5. Illustrations and Tables

Illustrations and tables should supplement the text and not duplicate it.  Each table should have a title, centered at the top of the table, that is proceeded by the word TABLE and its number (use Arabic numerals). Notes to a table should be placed below the table. While all charts, graphs, drawing and other illustrations should be referred to as figures. Figures should be numbered and given title and typed at the bottom of the figure. Authors should be prepared to supply final camera-ready prints for all figures at the time the manuscript is accepted for publication.


6. Footnotes / Endnotes

Footnotes are not recommended. Endnotes should be used only if absolutely necessary and must be numbered consecutively throughout the manuscript with superscript Arabic numerals. On a separate page, type the text for endnotes in the order in which they are mentioned in the text.


7. Appendixes

Lengthy but essential information (e.g., sample questionnaire, technical notes on method, a large table) should be presented in an appendix centered at the top of the page. If they are multiple appendixes, label each one alphabetically: APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, etc. In the text, refer to appendixes by their labels (e.g., Appendixes A). Provide each appendix with a title.


8. Reference Citations

All entries in the reference list must be cited in-text. Cite references in-text using the author-date method [e.g., Sidek (1998)]. If a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the work is referred to in the text. If a work has three to five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the name of the first author followed by “et al.” and the year whenever the work is cited (in the reference list, however, all names must be given). Page numbers should be provided when specific arguments or findings of authors are paraphrased, summarized, or directly quoted. Examples:


First in-text citation:

            Rosseni and Ramlee (2003: 13-17) argued that…………………………………

            Kamisah, Rosseni, Hamidah (2003) found ……………………………………


Subsequent citations:

            Rosseni and Ramlee (2003: 20-20) argued that …………………………………

            Kamisah et al. (1995) found ………………………………………………………


For parenthetical citations of two or more works, use alphabetical ordering and ampersands (&). Separate each cited work by semicolons. Example: Several researchers (e.g., Amla 1997; Lilia, Noraishah & Khalijah 2003a, 2003b; Rosseni et al. 2004; Safani & Manisah 2003; Shahrin 1998; Siti Rahayah 2004) support this argument.


9. References List

An alphabetically-ordered reference list should be included at the end of the manuscript. All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of all information in a reference. Several references by the same author(s) should be ordered chronologically (earliest date first). Begin the reference list on a new page and type the word REFERENCES centered at the top of the page. Type each entry using a hanging-indent format and follow the format and references style of the example below.

Book and book chapter

Barker, P. 1987. Authoring languages. London: Croom Helm.

Davis, N., Desforges, C., Jessel, J., Somekh, B., Taylor, C. & Vaughan, G. 1997.Can quality in learning be enhanced through the use of IT? In. Somekh, B. & Davis, N. (ed.). Using Information Technology effectively in teaching and learning. London: Routledge.

Gibson, J.L., Ivancevish, J.M. & Donnelly, J.H., Jr. 1994. Organizations, 8th ed. Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin.


Intan Safinas Mohd Ariff AlBakri, Siti Hamin Stapa & Rosseni Din. 2003. Using e-Mail Dialogue Journal Writing in ESL Classroom: A Case Study. VirTEC Jurnal. 3(1): 55-65.

Noriah Ishak, Siti Rahayah Ariffin, Rosseni Din & Aidah Abdul Karim. 2002. Expanding Traditional Classroom Through Computer Technology: A Collaborative Learning Process. Jurnal Pendidikan UTM 37(1): 17-28.

Rekkedal, T. & Paulsen, M.F. 1989. Computer conferencing in distance education: status and trends. European Journal of Education 24(1): 61-72.

Rosseni Din. 1998. Penjagaan Komputer. Buletin SRI 1(2): 2-4.

Proceedings, presented papers, and dissertations

Aidah Abdul Karim, Rosseni Din, Kamisah Osman. 2004. The Use of Information Literacy Skill Among Science Teacher Trainees in Malaysia Proceeding of the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education 15th International Conference. 1-6 March. Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 1120-1126.

Rosseni Din & Aidah Abdul Karim. 2004. Promoting Indigenous Language Development Through Computer Mediated Communication In An Online Learning Environment: A Hybrid Approach. Proceeding of the World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications. 21-26 June, Lugano, Switzerland, 5026-5032.

Rosseni Din. 2002. Proposal Penyediaan Portal Masuk ke server e-Bincang. Paper presented in the UKM Information Technology Infrastructure Committee Meeting No. 15/2002, 14 Mei, Computer Center, UKM Bangi.

Sahalani Basar. 2004. Pembinaan Perisian PPBK Berasaskan Web Untuk Pembelajaran Flash disepadu Dreamweaver. Projek Sarjana Pendidikan (Pendidikan Komputer), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

Electronic reference

Milligan, C. 2000. Virtual learning environments in the on-line delivery of staff development. (online report). 044.htm. January 15, 2001.

Green, K. 2000. High Touch, high tech, hybrid. Converge, May. (online magazine). DigitalTweed.shtm. June 2, 2002.

Bartol, K.M. Koehl, D. & Martin, D.C. 1987. Quantitative versus qualitative information utilization among college business students. (CD-ROM). Educational and Psychological Research 7: 61-74. Abstract from: SilverPlatter File: PsysLIT Item: 75-24812.

Funder. D.C. 1994 (March). Judgemental process and content: Commentary on Koehler on base-rate (9 paragraphs)/ Psychology (on-line serial). 5(17). Available Email: psyc@pucc Message: Get psyc 94- xxxxx.



Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs and Digital Object Identifier (DOI)for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that his or her submitted works do not infringe any existing copyright. Furthermore, the author indemnifies the editors and publisher against any breach of such a warranty. Authors should obtain letters of permission to reproduce or adapt copyright material and enclose copies of these letters with the final version of the accepted manuscript.


Privacy Statement

1. The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.

2. The title page which contains the author’s name, affiliation, address, phone number, fax number and e-mail address will be removed before the manuscript is sent out for the review.