Model Bersepadu Penerapan Kemahiran Abad Ke-21 dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (Integrated Model of Infusing 21st Century Skills in Teaching and Learning)

ROHANI ARBAA, HAZRI JAMIL, MOHAMMAD ZOHIR AHMAD

Abstract


Artikel ini mengemukakan Model Bersepadu Penerapan Kemahiran Abad Ke-21 yang  telah dibangunkan hasil kajian kes melalui pemerhatian, temu bual dan analisis dokumen terhadap proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran (PdP) terhadap empat orang guru yang melaksanakan pengajaran berpusatkan pelajar. Analisis tematik secara deduktif dan induktif dilakukan terhadap data yang diperoleh bagi mengenalpasti tema-tema penting berkaitan teknik pengajaran yang digunakan guru untuk menerapkan kemahiran abad ke-21 semasa PdP dijalankan. Tema-tema ini kemudiannya dibentang dan dipersetujui di dalam sesi ‘debriefing’ yang dihadiri empat orang pengkaji yang lain. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan elemen utama yang menentukan kejayaan penerapan kemahiran abad ke-21 ini adalah kearifan profesional guru. Kearifan profesional guru merupakan integrasi pengetahuan praktikal guru dalam melaksanakan aktiviti PdP dengan pengetahuan konteks di mana mereka berada, yang diperhalusi melalui amalan refleksi yang berterusan. Bersandarkan kearifan profesional yang dimiliki, penerapan kemahiran abad ke-21 dalam kalangan pelajar dapat dilakukan apabila guru dapat mengintegrasikan kaedah pengajaran yang merangkumi pembelajaran koperatif, bilik darjah demokratik dan teknik motivasi yang bersesuaian. Pembelajaran koperatif akan menjadi lebih berjaya apabila guru turut mengamalkan ciri bilik darjah demokratik yang menekankan konsep kesamaan peluang, kebebasan bersuara serta perkongsian kuasa antara guru dan pelajar. Aktiviti PdP sebegini akan mampu meningkatkan motivasi dan keterlibatan pelajar di dalam bilik darjah dan sekaligus membina kemahiran yang diperlukan bagi mendepani cabaran abad ke-21.

Kata kunci: Kemahiran abadke-21, kearifan profesional guru, pembelajaran koperatif, bilik darjah demokratik, motivasi

 

This article proposes an Integrated Model of Infusing 21st Century Skills that has been developed from a case study that was carried out on four teachers who implement student-centered approach in their teaching and learning (T&L) sessions. Observations and interviews were conducted on all the study participants and some related documents were also analyzed. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis were conducted on data gathered in identifying the key themes relating the T&L methods used by teachers to adopt 21st century skills. These themes were then presented in the debriefing session with another four researchers who gave their opinions and views. The findings show that the main element that determine the success of the implementation of 21st century skills is the teacher’s professional knowledge. Teacher’s professional knowledge is the integration of teacher’s practical knowledge in teaching with the knowledge of context in which they are located, and this knowledge is refined through continuous reflection. Based on the knowledge that they have,  the implementation of 21st century skills in students can be done when teachers can integrate the teaching methods that include cooperative learning, democratic classroom and motivation. Cooperative learning will be more successful if teachers also practise democratic classrooms that emphasize the concept of equal opportunity, freedom of speech and the sharing of power between teacher and student. Such T&L activities will increase student motivation and engagement in the classroom and hence build the necessary skills to face the challenges of the 21st century. 

Keywords: 21st Century Skills, teacher’s professional knowledge, cooperative learning, democratic classroom, motivation


Keywords


Education, Teaching and learning

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