PERANAN PENGURUS DALAM MEMBANGUNKAN KERJAYA PEKERJA DI INSTITUSI AGAMA ISLAM DI NEGERI SEMBILAN DAN KUALA LUMPUR: SATU ANALISIS KUALITATIF (Manager’s Role in Developing Employees’ Career in Islamic Institutional in Negeri Sembilan and Kuala Lumpur: A Qualitative Analysis)

Wan Aishah Wan Mohd Nowalid, Azman Ismail, Khairol Anwar @ Johari Mastor, Razaleigh Muhamat @ Kawangit, Raja Rizal Iskandar Raja Hisham

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Berdasarkan kajian literatur pembangunan modal insan daripada perspektif Islam
dan empirikal, pengurus biasanya melaksanakan dua kaedah yang sangat penting
dalam membangunkan kerjaya pekerja iaitu, autonomi kerja dan mengamalkan gaya kepimpinan transformasi. Keupayaan pengurus mengamalkan kaedah tersebut dapat membantu meningkatkan kelakuan proaktif pekerja. Yang lebih penting, kajian yang dilaksanakan baru-baru ini mendapati bahawa keupayaan pengurus melaksanakan tugas dan tanggungjawab dalam membangunkan kerjaya pekerja dapat meningkatkan kelakuan proaktif pekerja, dan keadaan ini pula boleh memberi peluang kepada pekerja untuk meningkatkan kenaikan pangkat. Meskipun sifat hubungan ini sangat menarik, namun peranan kelakuan proaktif sebagai pembolehubah mencelah adalah kurang diberi penekanan yang mendalam dalam kajian literatur pembangunan kerjaya. Oleh itu, kajian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengukur perhubungan di antara peranan pengurus dalam membangunkan kerjaya pekerja, kelakuan proaktif dan kenaikan pangkat di dalam organisasi. Kaedah temubual berstruktur telah digunakan untuk mengumpul data daripada pekerja yang berkhidmat di institusi agama Islam di Negeri Sembilan dan Kuala Lumpur. Dapatan kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa peranan yang dimainkan oleh pengurus dalam membangunkan kerjaya pekerja dapat meningkatkan kelakuan proaktif pekerja. Seterusnya, ia berupaya memberi peluang kepada untuk memperolehi kenaikan pangkat di organisasi kajian.

ABSTRACT
According to human capital development literature from the empirical and Islamic perspective, managers usually play two important roles in developing employees’ career namely job autonomy and transformational leadership style. Managers’ ability to apply these roles could enhance employees’ proactive behaviour. Most importantly, recent studies indicated that managers’ ability to perform tasks and being responsible to develop employees’ career could improve employees’ proactive behaviour and eventually provide a good chance for them to be promoted. Although the nature of this relationship seems enticing, however, the role of proactive behaviour as mediating variable was less emphasized in the literature of career development. Thus, this study aims to examine the relationship between the roles of managers in employees’ career development, proactive behaviour, and promotion in the organization. Semi-structured interview was used to collect data from employees who are working in Islamic religious institution in Negeri Sembilan and Kuala Lumpur. The results of this study showed that role played by managers in developing employees’ career enhance proactive behaviour. Furthermore, able to provide opportunities to gain promotion in the studied organization.


Full Text:

PDF

References


al-Quran.

Adekola, B. 2011. Career planning and career management as correlates for career development and job satisfaction: A case study of Nigerian bank employees. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research 1 (2): 100-112.

Arthur, M.B., Claman, P.H., DeFillippi, R.J. 1995. Intelligent enterprise, intelligent careers. Academy of Management Executive 9 (4): 7-20.

Arthur, M.B., Inkson, D., Pringle, J. 1999. The New Careers: Individual Action and Economic Change. London: Sage.

Barnett, B. R., & Bradley, L. 2007. The impact of organizational support for career development on career satisfaction. Career Development International 12 (7): 617-636.

Baruch, Y. 2004. Transforming careers: From linear to multidirectional career pathsorganizational and individual perspectives. Career Development International 9 (1): 5873.

Baruch, Y. 2006. Career development in organizations and beyond: Balancing traditional and contemporary viewpoints. Human Resource Management Review 16: 125-138

Bass, B.M. 1985. Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press

Brandt, A. 2012. The relationship between transformational leadership and proactive behavior, and the role of meaningfulness and stress. Master thesis. Faculteit Economie En

Bedrijfskunde.

Chua, Yan Piaw. 2006. Kaedah Penyelidikan. Kuala Lumpur: McGraw Hill.

Crant, J. M. 2000. Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of Management 26 (3): 435462.

DeFillippi, R.J., Arthur, M.B. 1994. The boundaryless career: A competency based perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior15 (4): 307-324.

De Vos, A., Dewilde, T. De Clippeleer, I. 2009. Proactive career behaviours and career success during the early career. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 82: 761-777.

Eby, L.T., Butts, M., Lockwood, A. 2003. Predictors of success in the era of the boundaryless career. Journal of Organizational Behavior 24(6): 689-708.

Fay, D. & Frese, M. 2001. The concept of personal initiative: An overview of validity studies. Human Performance 14(1): 97-124.

Forret, M.L., & Dougherty, T.W. 2004. Networking behaviors and career outcomes: Differences for men and women. Journal of Organizational Behavior 25: 419-437.

Grant, A. M., & Ashford, S. J. 2008. The dynamics of proactivity at work. Research in Organizational Behavior 28: 3-34.

Greenhaus, J.G., Callanan, G.A., & Godshalk, V.M. 2000. Career Management. New York: The Drydent Press.

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. 1976. Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 16: 250-279.

Herr, E.L. 2001. Career development and its practice: A historical perspective. The Career Development Quarterly 49(3): 196-211.

Hesse-Biber, S. N., & Leavy, P. 2006. The Practice of Qualitative Research. California: Sage Publication, Thousand Oaks.

Husaini Usman. 2008. Manajemen Teori, Praktek dan Riset Pendidikan. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Inkson, K., & Arthur, M.B. 2001. How to be a successful career capitalist. Organizational Dynamics 30(1): 48-61.

Ishak, S. 2004. Apakah yang tertulis dalam khazanah tulisan ilmiah tentang tret, tingkah laku dan tindakan yang diperlukan untuk menjadi seorang pengetua yang berkesan. Jurnal Pengurusan dan Kepimpinan Pendidikan 14(1): 1-17.

Ismail, A., Madrah, H., Aminudin, N., & Ismail, Y. 2013. Mediating role of career development in the relationship between career program and personal outcomes. Makara, Seri Sosio Humaniora 17(1): 43-54.

Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam Malaysia – Definisi & Rujukan Kenaikan Pangkat. 2014. Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam Malaysia. Retrieved from http://www.jpa.gov.my/index.

php?option=com_content&view=article&id=388:definisi-dan-rujukan-kenaikanpangkat&Itemid=41〈=ms[17 Mac 2015].

Kamus Abqarie Melayu-Arab-English.2010. http://www.kamus.abqarie.com/ [17 Mac 2015].

Kamus Dewan. 2000. Edisi keempat. Kuala Lumpur: Bahasa dan Pustaka.

King, Z. 2004. Career self-management: Its nature, causes and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior 65: 112-133.

Kong, H. 2013. Relationships among work-family supportive supervisors, career competencies, and job involvement. International Journal of Hospitality Management 33: 304-309.

Mack, K. G. 2012. Conscientiousness as a moderator of the relationship between work autonomy and job satisfaction. Tesis Dr. Fal, Portland State University.

Martin, A.F., Romero, F.P., Valle, C.R., & Dolan, S.L. 2001. Corporate business Strategy, career management and recruitment: Do Spanish firms adhere to contingency model. Career Development International 6(3): 149-155.

McCallum, S.Y. 2008. An examination of internal and external networking behaviors and their relationship to career success and work attitudes. Tesis Dr. Fal, St. Ambrose University.

McDaniels, C., & Gysbers, N.C. 1992. Counselling for Career Development. 1st ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Mohamed Fadzil Che’ Din. 2002. Pengantar Bimbingan dan Kaunseling. Selangor: Mc Graw Hill Publisher Sdn. Bhd.

Mohd Rasdi, R., Garavan, N.T. & Ismail, M. 2011. Understanding proactive behaviours and career success: Evidence from an emerging economy. Organizations and markets in emerging economies 2 (4): 53-71.

Morgeson, F.P., Delaney-Klinger, K. & Hemingway, M.A. 2005. The Importance of Job Autonomy, Cognitive Ability, and Job-Related Skill for Predicting Role Breadth and Job

Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 90(2): 399-406.

New Oxford English-English-Malay Dictionary. 2006. Edisi Kedua. Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd.

Orpen, C. 1994. The effects of organizational and individual career management on career success. International Journal of Manpower 15(1): 27-37.

Parker, S. K., Turner, N. & Williams, H. M., 2006. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology 91(3): 636-652.

Parrish, D. A. 2001. The impact of leadership behavior on organizational commitment and job autonomy of information services librarians. Tesis Dr. Fal, School of Information Studies, The Florida State Univesity.

Rasid Muhamad. 2007. Kepimpinan Transformasional: Konsep dan Aplikasinya dalam Memantapkan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran. t.tp.: Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang.

Saragih, S. 2011. The effects of job autonomy on work outcomes: Self efficacy as an intervening variable. International Research Journal of Business Studies 4(3): 203-215.

Sidek Mohd Noah. 2002. Perkembangan Kerjaya. Serdang: Fakulti Pengajian Pendidikan, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.

Sturges, J., Guest, D., & Mackenzie Davey, K. 2002. Who’s in charge? Graduates’ attitudes to and experiences of career management and their relationship with organizational commitment. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 9: 351-371.

Sturges, J., Simpson, R., Altman, Y., 2003. Capitalizing on learning: An exploration of the MBA as a vehicle for developing career competencies. International Journal of Training & Development 7(1): 53-66.

Theodossiou, I., & Zangelis, A. 2009. Career prospects and tenure-job satisfaction profiles: Evidence from panel data. The Journal of Socio-Economics 38: 648-657.

Vroom, V. H. 1964. Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley.

Warta Kerajaan Persekutuan 2012. Peraturan-Peraturan Pegawai Awam (Pelantikan, kenaikan pangkat dan penamatan perkhidmatan). P.U. (A)1.

Wilkens, U., & Nermerich, D. 2011. Love it, change it or leave it-understanding highly-skilled flexible workers’ job satisfaction from a psychological contract perspective. Management Revue 22(1): 65-84.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


  ISSN: 1985-6830

eISSN: 2550-2271

JURNAL HADHARI
Institut Islam Hadhari
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 UKM Bangi
Selangor, MALAYSIA.


Phone: +603-8921 6988/6994
Fax: +603-8921 6990
Email: pghiih@ukm.edu.my

Web: ejournals.ukm.my/jhadhari