Undang-Undang kemanusiaan antarabangsa dan perang terhadap keganasan: Suatu tinjauan kritikal (International Humanitarian Law and the war on terror: A critical review)

Mohamad Nasrin Nasir, Zuliskandar Ramli, Sharifah Munirah Alatas, Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman Abdul Rahman, Muhammad Farhan Zulkifli

Abstract


Abstrak

 

Terdapat persoalan sejauh mana ‘Perang terhadap Keganasan’ boleh diklasifikasikan sebagai konflik bersenjata. Justeru itu, berdasarkan kajian kepustakaan artikel ini membincangkan berkenaan Undang-Undang Kemanusiaan Antarabangsa dan statut kuasanya terhadap kumpulan bersenjata transnasional berdasarkan Konsep Penentuan Sendiri (Self-Determination). Hasilnya, orang awam yang ditahan atas sebab-sebab keselamatan mesti diberi perlindungan yang diperuntukkan dalam Konvensyen Geneva Keempat dan Orang Awam tersebut yang tidak memenuhi kriteria yang diperlukan menjadikan mereka mendapat hak sepertimana Tahanan Perang. Hal ini penting dalam memahami perbezaan antara Undang-Undang Domestik, Undang-Undang Antarabangsa dan Undang-Undang Kemanusiaan Antarabangsa. Di bawah Konvensyen Geneva, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) ICRC mesti diberi akses kepada orang-orang yang ditahan dalam konflik bersenjata antarabangsa, sama ada mereka adalah tawanan perang atau orang-orang yang dilindungi oleh Konvensyen Geneva Keempat. ICRC telah berulang kali dipanggil untuk menentukan status undang-undang yang tepat setiap individu yang diadakan di Teluk Guantanamo dan rangka kerja undang-undang yang terpakai kepada semua orang yang telah diadakan dalam usaha memerangi keganasan di luar situasi konflik bersenjata, ICRC mempunyai hak inisiatif kemanusiaan di bawah Statut Antarabangsa Palang Merah dan Bulan Sabit Merah. Oleh itu, orang ramai yang kerap dikunjungi oleh ICRC telah ditahan atas sebab-sebab keselamatan dalam masa aman. Beberapa konvensyen antarabangsa mengenai keganasan yang sedia ada termasuk peruntukan-peruntukan tertentu yang menyatakan bahawa negeri-negeri boleh membenarkan akses ICRC kepada orang-orang yang ditahan kerana disyaki aktiviti pengganas. Peruntukan-peruntukan ini, serta orang-orang yang dimasukkan ke dalam perjanjian Undang-Undang Kemanusiaan Antarabangsa dan dalam Statut Antarabangsa Palang Merah dan Bulan Sabit Merah Gerakan adalah pengiktirafan terhadap peranan unik yang dimainkan oleh ICRC, berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip berkecuali dan kesaksamaan.

 

Kata kunci: Al-Qaeda, Konvensyen Geneva, pengganas, perang terhadap keganasan, Undang-Undang Kemanusiaan Antarabangsa, 11 September 2001

 

Abstract

 

There is a question how far the 'War on Terrorism' can be classified as armed conflict. Based on literature review this article discusses the International Humanitarian Law and its statutory statutes on transnational armed groups based on the concept of Self-Determination. As a result, the public who are detained for security reasons must be given the protection provided in the Fourth Geneva Convention and the Public whom do not meet the necessary criteria to entitle them to be treated as Prisonner of War. This is important in understanding the differences between Domestic Law, International Law And International Humanitarian Law. Under the Geneva Conventions, the ICRC must be granted access to persons detained in international armed conflict, whether they are prisoners of war or persons protected by the Fourth Geneva Convention. ICRC has been repeatedly called upon to determine the right legal status every individual held in Guantanamo Bay and the legal framework applicable to everyone who has been held in the fight against terrorism. Outside the situation of armed conflict, the ICRC has the right of humanitarian initiative under the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Statute. Therefore, people frequently visited by the ICRC have been arrested for safety reasons in a safe manner. Several international conventions on existing violence include certain provisions which provide that states may allow ICRC access to persons detained for suspected terrorist activities. These provisions, as well as persons entered into International Humantarian Law agreements and in the International Statue of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is a recognition of the unique role played by the ICRC, based on the principles of neutrality and equality.

 

Keywords: Al-Qaeda, Geneva convention, terrorist, war on terror, International Humantarian Law, 11 September 2001

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdul Gharuf Hamid (2005) Public International Law: A practical approch. Pearson Malaysia, Selangor.

Anup Shah (2013) War on terror [Cited 20 November 2016]. Available from: http://www.globalissues.org/issue/245/war-on-terror

Berkowitz, (2005) Terrorism, the laws of war, and the constitution: Debating the enemy combatant cases, Stanford. Hoover.

Christopher N. Koontz, (2008) Enduring voices: Oral histories of the U.S. army experience in Afghanistan, 2003-2005. Washington, D.C. United States Army Center of Military History.

Coll Steve (2004) Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.

Eric A. Posner, (2005), War, international law, and sovereignty: Reevaluating the rules of the game in a new century: Terrorism and the Laws of War”, Chicago Journal of International Law 5, 423-444.

Geltzer Joshua A (2011) US Counter-terrorism strategy and al-Qaeda: Signalling and the terrorist World-View. Routledge., New York.

Hans-Peter Gasser (2002) Acts of terror: Terrorism and International Humanitarian Law. International Review of the Red Cross 84, 553-554.

Henckaerts JM, Doswald-Beck L (2005) ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law. University Press, Cambridge.

ICRC (2011) Do some aspects of the fight against terrorism amount to a "transnational" armed conflict? [Cited 20 November 2016] Available from: https://www.icrc.org

ICRC (2011) What is the ICRC's role with respect to persons detained in the fight against terrorism? [Cited 20 November 2016] Available from: https://www.icrc.org

ICRC (2011) International humanitarian law and terrorism: questions and answers [Cited 20 November 2016] Available from: https://www.icrc.org

ICRC (2011) The relevance of IHL in the context of terrorism [Cited 20 November 2016] Available from: http://www.icrc.org

ICRC (2011) What law applies to persons detained in the fight against terrorism? [Cited 20 November 2016] Available from: http://www.icrc.org

Jelena Pejic (2004) Terrorist Acts and Groups: A Role for International Law? British Yearbook of International Law 75 : 85‐88.

Jordan J. Paust (2003) “War and Enemy Status after 9/11: Attacks on the Laws of War”, Yale Journal of International Law 28, 325.

Liesbeth Zegveld (2002) Accountability of armed opposition groups in International Law. Cambridge. University Press, Cambridge.

Marco Sassòli (2004) Use and abuse of the laws of war in the ‘war on terrorism, law and inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice 22, 198‐203.

Michael Cox; Doug Stokes (2012) US Foreign Policy.Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Moghadam, Assaf (2008) The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks. Johns Hopkins University, Washington.

Neria, Yuval; Gross, Raz; Marshall, Randall D.; Susser, Ezra S (2006) 9/11: Mental health in the wake of terrorist attacks. Cambridge University Press, London.

North R (2009) Ministry of defeat: The British war in Iraq 2003–2009. Continuum, London.

Rick, T (2006) The American Military Adventure In Iraq. Penguin, New York.

Roberta Arnold, Pierre‐Antoine Hildbrand (2005) International Humanitarian Law and the 21st Century’s Conflicts.Lausanne. Edis.

Wortel (2009) Humanitarians and their moral stance in war: The underlying values’. International Review Red Cross 876, 779.

Wright Steven (2007) The United States and Persian Gulf security: The foundations of the war on terror. Ithaca Press.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.