ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION THROUGH WAQF INSTITUTIONS IN OTTOMAN EMPIRE BETWEEN 15th UNTIL 17th CENTURY (Peradaban Islam Menelusuri Institusi Wakaf dalam Kerajaan ‘Uthmaniyyah Pada Abad Ke-15M Sehingga Abad ke-17M)

Nur Ainul Basyirah Alias, Shamsul Azhar Yahya, Ermy Azziaty Rozali

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Waqf institution was a very signifcant building in the Islamic civilization developed by the Ottoman Empire around Eastern Europe during its rule in the 15th century until the end of the 17th century. The spread of waqf practices at that time provided many benefts and good deeds to the society including for non-Muslims. Through this institution, the Ottoman Empire gradually brought Islamic civilization into many parts of Eastern Europe. Therefore, this research focuses on the role and contribution of the waqf institutions in expanding Islamic civilization during the Ottoman Empire over the region from the 15th century to the 17th century. This study was conducted using qualitative methods in the form of historical research while data collection methods used the method of analysis of documents from various primary and secondary sources as well as using interview method to strengthen the data obtained. The results show that the Ottoman Empire not only bring Islamic civilization but spreading the Ottoman civilization as well. There is no doubt that through this institution, there was a mixing of culture occurred led to the emergence of new culture in the region. In addition, the study found that the contribution of the waqf institutions covered various aspects such as economic, socio-cultural, educational, religious and humanitarian. In conclusion, the construction of waqf institutions had a positive impact on the society. The government not only expanded their power by conquering new territories but also wanted to spread the Islamic civilization and provide welfare to the people.

ABSTRAK

Institusi wakaf merupakan binaan yang sangat signifkan dalam peradaban Islam yang dikembangkan oleh kerajaan ‘Uthmaniyyah di sekitar Eropah Timur ketika penguasaannya pada abad ke-15M sehingga akhir abad ke-17M. Amalan wakaf yang tersebar ketika itu memberikan pelbagai kemudahan dan kebaikan kepada masyarakat termasuk golongan bukan Islam. Melalui institusi wakaf ini juga, kerajaan ‘Uthmaniyyah membawa peradaban Islam masuk ke banyak bahagian di Eropah Timur secara beransur-ansur. Oleh itu, kajian ini memfokuskan berkaitan peranan dan sumbangan institusi wakaf dalam mengembangkan peradaban Islam semasa kerajaan ‘Uthmaniyyah menguasai wilayah tersebut pada abad ke-15M sehingga abad ke-17M. Kajian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif yang berbentuk kajian sejarah manakala kaedah pengumpulan data pula menggunakan kaedah analisis dokumen daripada sumber primer dan sekunder serta kaedah temubual supaya dapat mengukuhkan data yang didapati. Hasil kajian menunjukkan peranan institusi wakaf kerajaan ‘Uthmaniyyah bukan sahaja dalam membawa peradaban Islam ke seluruh wilayah Eropah Timur tetapi juga ia turut menyebarkan peradaban ‘Uthmaniyyah. Tidak dinafkan melalui institusi ini, berlakunya percampuran budaya yang menyebabkan kewujudan budaya baru di wilayah tersebut. Selain itu, kajian mendapati sumbangan institusi wakaf yang dibangunkan turut meliputi pelbagai aspek seperti ekonomi, sosiobudaya, pendidikan, keagamaan dan kemanusiaan. Kesimpulannya, pembinaan institusi wakaf ini memberikan impak positif kepada masyarakat dalam wilayah taklukan kerajaan ‘Uthmaniyyah. Pemerintah bukan sahaja meluaskan kuasa dengan menakluk wilayah baru tetapi juga mahu menyebarkan peradaban Islam dan memberikan kebajikan kepada masyarakat.


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