Majlis Agama Islam dan Adat Istiadat Melayu Kelantan (MAIK) dan Pemodenan Pendidikan di Kelantan, 1917-1957 (Majlis Agama Islam dan Adat Istiadat Melayu Kelantan (MAIK) and Modernisation of Education In Kelantan, 1917-1957)

Siti Fathihah Abd Lati, Mahani Musa

Abstract


This essay examines the role and contributions of the Majlis Agama Islam dan Adat Istiadat Melayu Kelantan (MAIK) in the development of education in the state of Kelantan since the opening of its first school in 1917 until the end of British administration in Kelantan in 1957 following Malaya’s independence. As an organization that defended the religion, customs and welfare of the Malays, MAIK managed to undertake strategies to modernize education to benefit Muslims in the state despite being plagued by colonial policies. Its administrative bureaucratization which closely emulates the British bureaucratic system in the state and in Malaya enabled MAIK to plan educational innovation in a much more systematic manner. Other than opening its own schools MAIK also managed to bring in more schools in the state to be under its umbrella. MAIK’s strategy of providing English and Arabic schools show it was able to put in place a balance education that incorporate both religious and secular needs of the local society. MAIK even preceded the British in the provision of education for women. It was responsible to develop female education in Kelantan including to provide opportunities for girls to further their education overseas. This study uses a qualitative method that involves data collection and evaluation from primary sources obtained from the National Archives of Malaysia, National Library of Malaysia, MAIK Library, and Hamzah Sendut Library of Universiti Sains Malaysia. This study found that efforts to bureaucratize educational administration, the establishment of English and Arabic schools, and the empowerment of women education not only strengthen MAIK schools and enabling them to receive public support but also placed MAIK and the intellectuals behind it as important actors and agents in defending the welfare of the local society through education throughout British colonial rule.

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JEBAT : Malaysian Journal of History, Politics & Strategic Studies, 
Center for Research in History, Politics and International Affairs,
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi Selangor, Malaysia.

eISSN: 2180-02551

ISSN: 012-5644