Kawalan Imigresen dan Pembentukan Negara: Perkembangan dan Perubahan di Tanah Melayu Daripada Zaman Kesultanan Melaka Ke Era Malaysia Moden (Immigration Control and State Formation; Development and Changes In Malaya From Malacca Sultanate To Malaysian Modern Era)

Ahmad Zulnasri Abdul Khalid

Abstract


Migration is one of the key factors in the formation of a state over a long period of time. Migration control is a prerequisite to ensuring the existence of a country on its own identity. For Malaya, British was responsible for establishing the Immigration Department and gradually introducing immigration control at border checkpoints in legal aspect and procedures in order to control the entry of migrants and to assist economic development. Although the establishment of organized immigration control can be traced back to the era of British government, the fact is that its concept and practice generally existed as early as the Malacca Malay sultanate, which regulated a vast foreign trade activities and collected tax through the port. The development of immigration control after independence until today focused more on coordination of policies and legislation as well as modernization of the system and technology within the Immigration Department of Malaysia as the agency that enforces control of foreigners’ entry at the border checkpoints. This article collects information and data from feedbacks gathered from senior officials in the Immigration Department of Malaysia as well as literatures in the history, legal and social sciences. The main focus of this article is the changes in the border checkpoint control system in Malaya due to the process of state formation which includes the colonization, economic, security, migration, legislation and consolidation of the Malayan territories, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak which eventually formed Malaysia. All of these factors gradually formed a system of immigration control from one simple process during Malacca era to a complete and advance process with legislations and the role of specific agencies.

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JEBAT : Malaysian Journal of History, Politics & Strategic Studies, 
Center for Research in History, Politics and International Affairs,
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi Selangor, Malaysia.

eISSN: 2180-02551

ISSN: 012-5644