Model of integrative border diplomacy in managing harmony between Indonesia and Malaysia: Case of Temajuk, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Iva Rachmawati, Machya Astuti Dewi


The discussion about border diplomacy, either by the central government and sub-national actor, is still dominated by the state. The border issues are still considered as part of the security issue that makes the issues belong to the domain of high politics. In turn, this point of view makes the state the only actor in the management of the borderline area and border diplomacy. This paper is going to propose an integrative type of border diplomacy as a model to study borderline diplomacy. This model introduces the roles of the three actors, namely, central government as the main actor, sub-national actors, and non state actors as supporting actors. Based on an empirical study conducted through field research in Temajuk, Sambas, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, this paper argues that the collaboration of the three actors plays an important role in resolving the conflict in the borderland of Indonesia-Malaysia. National government of the Republic of Indonesia, local government of Sambas and Temajuk as sub-national actors, and supporting actors: community, academicians, and local mass media synergized in administering borderline diplomacy. In this interaction, sub-national actors played the most intensive role in seeking the resolution. In turn, this symbiosis supports the harmony between Indonesia-Malaysia in border area.

Keywords: central government, harmony, Indonesia-Malaysia relationship, integrative border diplomacy, sub-national actors, supporting actors.

Full Text:



Aas, K. F. (2011). ‘Crimmigrant’ bodies and bona fide travelers: Surveillance, citizenship and global governance. Theoretical Criminology, 15(3), 331–346. 1362480610396643

Aguirre, K., & Bojórquez, G. (2018). Paradiplomacy and economic development in the Reynosa-Mcallen cross-border region. Estudios Fronterizos, 19.

Andika, M. (2017). Indonesia border diplomacy under the global maritime fulcrum. Ritsumeikan International Affairs, 15, 45-66.

Andreas, P. (2009). Border Games: Policing the U.S.–Mexico Divide, 2nd edn. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press.

Andrianti, N. (2015). Peranan media massa nasional dalam politik internasional. Informasi Kajian Ilmu Komunikasi, 45(1), 43-55.

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2018. Sambas dalam Angka 2017.

Balibar, E. (2004). We the people of Europe? Reflections on transnational citizenship. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Bassols, N., & Correa, J. (2017). Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life. Estudios Fronterizos, 18(35).

Bautista, A., Hurtado, M., & Aponte, M. (2017). Towards a cross-border government? Exploring institutionality for Colombo-Peruvian “integration”. Estudios Fronterizos, 18(35).

Bradshaw, M. (1998). Going global: The political economy of oil and gas development offshore of Sakhalin. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 12(1), 147-176.

Bustamante, G., & Cañas, S. (2017). Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment on the border. Estudios Fronterizos, 18(35), 90-106.

Cornago, N. (2018). “Paradiplomacy and Protodiplomacy”. In Gordon Martel, G. (ed). Encyclopedia of Diplomacy. Oxford: Blackwell-Wiley.

Côté-Boucher, K., Infantino, F., & Salter, M. B. (2014). Border security as practice: An agenda for research. Security Dialogue, 45(3), 195–208. 0967010614533243

DetikNews. (2011). Malaysia Caplok Wilayah RI di Camar Bulan, Kalimantan Barat. Retrieved from Downloaded December 2019

DetikNews. (2012). Tak Ributkan Patok, Warga Camar Bulan Harmonis dengan Malaysia. Retrieved from

De Genova, N., & Peutz, N. (2010). The deportation regime: Sovereignty, space, and the freedom of movement. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Duchacek, I. (1990). “Perforated Sovereignties: Towards a typology of new actors in international relations”. In Michaelmann & Soldatos, P. (eds). Federalism and international relations: The role of subnational units. New York: Oxford University Press.

Focus Group Discussion, August 3, 2020.

Google Map. (2020). Map of Temajuk. Retrieved from map+of+temajuk&oq=map+of+temajuk&aqs=chrome..69i57j0i22i30i457j69i64.12561j0j15&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

Happer, C., & Philo, G. (2013). The role of the media in the construction of public belief and social change. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 1(1). DOI:10.5964/jspp.v1i1.96.

Henrikson, A. (2000). Facing across borders: The Diplomacy of BonVoisinage. International Political Science Review, 21(2), 121–147.

Irwansyah. (2016). Konflik perbatasan Indonesia Malaysia dalam Forum Komnitas Online dan perspektif masyarakat di wilayah perbatasan. Jurnal Communicate, 1(2), 87-104.

Istiqamah, (2017). Indonesia defence diplomacy to make Tanjung Datu segment as outstanding boundary problem of Indonesia-Malaysia. Jurnal Pertahanan dan Bela Negara, 7(3), 65-82.

Jordan, A., & Khanna, J. (1995). Economic interdependence and challenges to the nation-state: The emergence of natural economic territories in the Asia-Pacific. International Journal of International Affairs, 48(2), 433-462.

Laube, L. (2019). The relational dimension of externalizing border control: Selective visa policies in migration and border diplomacy. Comparative Migration Studies, 7, 1-2. (2011). Malaysia Caplok Wilayah RI. Retrieved from

Malau, I. L., & Priatmojo, D. (2011). Penjelasan Kodam Tanjung Soal Camar Bulan. Retrieved from

Martínez, R. (2018). The paradiplomacy of subnational governments in North America. Ánfora, 25(44), 17-41.

Miere, C. (2014). Maritime diplomacy in the 21st century: Drivers and challenges. New York: Routledge.

Musyaqqat & Syafaat, R. (2019). Merajut relasi menggenggam tradisi: Masyarakat nusa utara dalam diplomasi maritim Indonesia-Filipina (1955-1974). Sejarah dan Budaya: Jurnal Sejarah, Budaya, dan Pengajarannya, 13(2), 127-147.

Nevins, J. (2010). Operation gatekeeper and beyond: The war on ‘illegals’ and the remaking of the U.S.–Mexico boundary. New York: Routledge.Personal Interview. March 25, 2019.

Personal Interview. March 28, 2019.

Personal Interview. March 24, 2019.

Personal Interview. March 27, 2019.

Perwita, A., & Meilisa, I. (2018). Cooperative maritime diplomacy: The resolution of the Philippines-Indonesia maritime border dispute (1994-2014). Andalas Journal of International Studies, 7(2), 130-148.

Pontianakpost. Retrieved from

Priyowidodo, G., & Indrayani, I. (2012). Bingkai media terhadap hubungan bilateral Indonesia-Malaysia (Analisis framing terhadap pemberitaan sengketa perbatasan kelautan dan perairan Indonesia-Malaysia pasca insiden 13 Agustus 2010 dalam Kompas online. Jurnal Komunikasi, 1(5), 429-441.

Puddu, L. (2017). Border Diplomacy and State-Building in Northwestern Ethiopia 1965–1977. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 11(3). 1314997

Puji, S. (2011). Pemerintah didesak selesaikan persoalan Camar Bulan. Retrieved from

Rachmawati, I., & Fauzan. (2012). Problem diplomasi perbatasan dalam tata kelola perbatasan Indonesia-Malaysia. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, 16(2), 95-109.

Rachmawati, I., & Dewi, M.A. (2019). Diplomasi perbatasan Indonesia dalam mengelola kawasan perbatasan: Studi kasus Tanjung Datu. Laporan Penelitian. Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta.

Sergounin, A. (1999). The bright side of Russia´s regionalism. Ponars Memo Series, no. 59.

Squire, V. (ed.) (2011). The contested politics of mobility: Borderzones and irregularity. London: Routledge.

Starke, J. (1972). An Introduction to International Law. London: Butterworths.

Teshome, W. (2009). Colonial boundaries of Africa: The case of Ethiopia’S boundary with Sudan. Ege Academic Review, 9(1), 337-367.

Thontowi, J. (2011). Bilateral cooperation between the governments of Indonesia-Malaysia on management border territory. Jurnal Unisia, 33(74), 113-120.

Tréglodé, B. (2016). Maritime boundary delimitation and Sino-Vietnamese cooperation in the Gulf of Tonkin (1994-2016). China Perspectives, 3, 33-41. DOI: 10.4000/chinaperspectives. 7030.

Walters, W. (2006). Border/Control. European Journal of Social Theory, 9(2), 187-203.


  • There are currently no refbacks.