Analisis indeks vulnerabiliti komuniti miskin zon pinggir laut di Kelantan (The vulnerability index of poor community in coastal zones in Kelantan)

Nor Shahida Azali, Firuza Begham Mustafa, Khairulmaini Osman Salleh




Istilah vulnerabiliti ataupun keterancaman bertujuan untuk menjelaskan perhubungan yang wujud di antara keterdedahan ancaman fizikal dengan kesejahteraan manusia dan keupayaan mereka untuk menghadapi ancaman. Kajian ini melihat vulnerabiliti komuniti miskin yang tinggal di zon pinggir laut Negeri Kelantan. Komuniti miskin yang mempunyai daya tahan yang rendah merupakan kelompok komuniti yang paling berisiko terdedah kepada ancaman yang berlaku di zon pinggir laut seperti ancaman ombak, ribut, banjir air masin dan sebagainya. Oleh itu, kajian ini dijalankan untuk menilai indeks vulnerabiliti komuniti miskin zon pinggir laut di sepanjang pinggir laut Negeri Kelantan. Terdapat dua komponen yang diambilkira iaitu komponen ancaman dan komponen sistem yang berisiko (komuniti miskin). Jumlah responden atau ketua isi rumah yang terlibat dalam sesi soal selidik ialah sepuluh peratus daripada jumlah ketua isi rumah miskin pada tahun 2012 bagi setiap Dewan Undangan Negeri di sepanjang pinggir laut Negeri Kelantan iaitu 515 orang. Ciri-ciri yang diambilkira seterusnya dinilai dengan skala Likert lima pilihan dan dianalisis bagi mendapatkan nilai indeks vulnerabiliti komuniti miskin zon pinggir laut Negeri Kelantan bagi 26 buah kampung di 11 mukim dalam empat daerah di pinggir laut Negeri Kelantan. Hasil daripada penilaian indeks tersebut menunjukkan tahap vulnerabiliti komuniti miskin sangat kritikal dan memerlukan satu mekanisma adaptasi yang sesuai agar komuniti ini boleh meningkatkan daya tahan mereka. Kesimpulannya, penilaian indeks vulnerabiliti komuniti miskin zon pinggir laut bukan sahaja menggambarkan tahap keterancaman komuniti tersebut, malah boleh dijadikan petunjuk dan panduan bukan sahaja kepada mereka tetapi pihak-pihak yang terlibat dalam aspek pengurusan di zon pinggir laut.


Kata kunci: ancaman, berisiko, indeks vulnerabiliti komuniti miskin zon pinggir laut, komuniti miskin, vulnerabiliti, zon pinggir laut




The term vulnerability is intended to clarify the relationship between the exposure to physical threats and human well-being as well as their ability to cope with the threats. This study looks into the vulnerability of the poor community living in the coastal zone of Kelantan. A poor community with low resilience is at risk of being exposed to threats commonly occurred in coastal zones such as massive waves, storms, salt water floods and other threats. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the vulnerability index of the poor community residing along the coastal zone of Kelantan. There are two components that are taken into consideration namely the threat and system at risk (poor community). A total of 515 head of households’ was selected as respondents to complete the questionnaire surveys. The number of respondents in the study represents approximately ten per cent of the overall head of households among the poor in 2012 for each State Legislative Assembly along the coast of Kelantan. The selected features were assessed with a five-point Likert scale and analyzed in order to attain the vulnerability index value for the poor community residing along the coastal zone in Kelantan. A total of 26 villages in 11 sub-districts within four districts along the coastal zone in Kelantan were assessed in this study. The results indicate that the vulnerability level of the poor community is at a very critical stage and an appropriate adaptation mechanism is required for the community to improve their resilience. In conclusion, the assessment of the vulnerability index of the poor coastal community does not only reflect the level of threat the community is facing, but can also be used as guidance for the community as well as by those involved in the management of the coastal zones.


Keywords: threats, risk, vulnerability index of poor community in coastal zones, poor communities, vulnerability, coastal zone

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