Bila dan Mengapa ‘You’ Menjadi ‘Kita’: Satu Analisis Perbandingan Inggeris-Melayu (When and Why ‘You’ Becomes ‘Kita’: A Contrastive English-Malay Analysis)

Mohamed Zain Sulaiman, Muhamad Jad Hamizan Mohamad Yusoff


Penggunaan kata ganti nama diri orang berbeza daripada satu bahasa ke bahasa yang lain. Perbezaan paling ketara antara bahasa Inggeris dan Melayu terdapat pada penggunaan kata ganti nama diri orang kedua. Terdapat pelbagai pilihan dalam bahasa Melayu bagi terjemahan kata ganti nama kedua Inggeris yang merujuk secara eksklusif kepada diri orang kedua, iaitu definite you. Penentuan pilihan tersebut bergantung pada faktor-faktor sosio-budaya. Terdapat juga satu jenis lagi kata ganti diri you yang merujuk kepada manusia secara umum dan tidak terhad kepada orang kedua yang dikenali sebagai indefinite you. Dua kamus utama Inggeris-Melayu memberi dua padanan yang bercanggah bagi indefinite you dalam bahasa Melayu. Tinjauan literatur pula tidak menemukan sebarang kajian mahupun perbincangan akademik tentang padanan indefinite you dan terjemahannya yang sesuai dalam bahasa Melayu. Justeru, dengan menggunakan kaedah analisis teks selari (parallel text analysis)  makalah ini mengkaji bagaimana fungsi indefinite you direalisasikan secara sejadi dalam bahasa Melayu. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa secara umumnya, fungsi indefinite you tidak direalisasikan menggunakan mana-mana varian kata ganti diri kedua dalam bahasa Melayu seperti ‘anda’, ‘engkau’, ‘awak’ dan ‘kamu’. Sebaliknya, terdapat dua kaedah lain yang digunakan: (a) penggunaan perkataan-perkataan yang merujuk kepada manusia secara umum seperti ‘orang’, ‘seseorang’, ‘siapa-siapa’ dan ‘sesiapa’; dan (b) penggunaan kata ganti nama diri orang pertama jamak ‘kita’. Kajian ini turut membincangkan asbab di sebalik pemilihan ‘kita’ dalam bahasa Melayu sebagai kata ganti diri tidak tentu dari perspektif linguistik dan budaya.


Kata kunci: Analisis perbandingan Inggeris-Melayu; indefinite you; terjemahan Inggeris-Melayu; kata ganti nama diri orang; analisis teks selari




The use of pronouns differs across languages. The most striking difference between English and Malay lies in the second-person pronoun. There are several options in Malay for the translation of the English second-person pronoun which refers exclusively to the addressee, i.e. ‘definite you’. The selection of the appropriate option is dependent mainly on socio-cultural factors. There is also another type of you which refers to people in general and not to the second person in particular, known as ‘indefinite you’. Two main English-Malay dictionaries provide contradicting Malay equivalents for indefinite you. A review of the literature failed to yeild any studies or academic discussions on the equivalent of indefinite you and its suitable translation in Malay. Adopting the parallel text analysis method, this paper investigates how the Malay language, as used by Malay society, encodes the functions fulfilled by indefinite you. The findings show that the functions fulfilled by indefinite you in general are not encoded in Malay using any of its second-person pronoun variants such as anda, engkau, awak and kamu. Instead, there are two other methods: (a) the use of words denoting people in general such as orang (people), seseorang (one), siapa-siapa (anyone) and sesiapa (anyone); and (b) the use of the inclusive first-person plural kita. The study discusses the reasons behind the Malay choice of kita as an indefinite personal pronoun from both the linguistic and cultural prespectives.


Keywords: English-Malay contrastive analysis; indefinite you; English-Malay translation; personal pronouns; parallel text analysis

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