Kajian Fonologi Kesalahan Bunyi Dalam Bahasa Kanak-Kanak (A Phonological Study of Sound Errors in Children’s Utterances)

Noor Shahirah Mohamad Rodzi, Sharifah Raihan Syed Jaafar

Abstract


Dalam proses pemerolehan bahasa pertama, kanak-kanak sering melakukan kesalahan bunyi semasa bertutur. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk melihat kesalahan bunyi bahasa kanak-kanak. Untuk tujuan ini, seramai sepuluh orang kanak-kanak yang berusia dalam lingkungan tiga hingga lima tahun telah diperhatikan percakapan mereka melalui aktiviti seperti bermain dan bercakap bersama rakan. Kanak-kanak ini juga diminta menyebut nama haiwan pada gambar yang ditunjukkan. Data menunjukkan bahawa fenomena fonologi penggantian dan pengguguran konsonan berlaku ke atas sebutan kanak-kanak ini. Hasil analisis menunjukkan kanak-kanak ini paling sukar menghasilkan bunyi /r/ dan /s/ kerana kedua-dua konsonan telah digantikan masing-masing dengan konsonan [ɣ], [w] atau [l] dan [ʃ] atau [ʧ]. Selain itu, bunyi konsonan sengau /m/, /n/ dan [] digugurkan terus kerana sukar bagi kanak-kanak ini untuk menghasilkan bunyi tersebut. Kesimpulannya, kanak-kanak pada lingkungan usia ini berpotensi melakukan kesalahan beberapa bunyi ketika bercakap. Dalam kajian ini, kesalahan bunyi sesuatu konsonan itu telah sama ada digantikan dengan satu konsonan lain atau pun digugurkan sahaja konsonan tersebut.

Kata kunci: pemerolehan bahasa; kesalahan bunyi; fonologi; penggantian konsonan; pengguguran konsonan.

A Phonological Study of Sound Errors in Children’s Utterances

ABSTRACT

In the first language acquisition, children always produce sound errors in their utterance. This study was done to investigate sound errors in children’s language. In order to do this, ten children who aged between three and five years old were observed their utterances through activities such as playing and conversation with their friends. The children were also asked to name all the animals in the pictures showed to them. The data show that the phonological phenomena named consonant substitution and deletion occurred in the children’s utterances. The results from the analysis show that the children have most difficulties to produce consonants /r/ and /s/ as these consonants have been substituted to [ɣ], [w] or [l] and [ʃ] or [ʧ], respectively. Besides that, nasal consonants such as [m], [n] and [N] are deleted as these sounds are quite difficult to produce by the children. In conclusion, the output of this study might be able to provide knowledge and understanding related to sound errors in children’s language particularly the issues of consonants substitution and deletion occurred in children’s language.

Key words: language acquisition; speech errors; phonology; consonant substitution and consonant deletion.


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