HUBUNGAN DI ANTARA STIGMA DAN KESIHATAN MENTAL DALAM KALANGAN ORANG YANG HIDUP DENGAN HIV/AIDS (ODHA) (Relationship between Stigma and Mental Health among People Living with HIV/AIDS)

N. Z. Abidin, Nasrudin Subhi, Mohd Suhaimi Mohamad, Norulhuda Sarnon

Abstract


Stigma dalam kalangan orang yang hidup dengan HIV/AIDS (ODHA) memberi kesan kepada kesihatan mental seperti kebimbangan, kemurungan dan ketakutan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji perhubungan antara stigma dan kesihatan mental ODHA. Kaedah persampelan bertujuan digunakan dengan melibatkan self-identified ODHA yang berumur 18 tahun dan ke atas. Kajian ini menggunakan soal selidik yang menggabungkan Skala Stigma HIV dan Inventori Kesihatan Mental (MHI-18). Seramai 34 orang responden telah terlibat dalam kajian ini dan 52.9 peratus responden mempunyai tahap kemurungan dan kebimbangan yang tidak sihat. Kajian ini juga mendapati bahawa terdapat perhubungan yang signifikan antara stigma dan kesihatan mental (r = -0.405), kebimbangan (r = -0.379), positif afektif (r = -0.479), imej kendiri negatif dengan kesihatan mental (r = -0.372), kebimbangan (r = -0.400), kemurungan (r = -0.349), positif afektif (r = -0.476), sikap masyarakat dengan kesihatan mental (r = -0.406), kebimbangan (r = -0.397), positif afektif (r = -0.488), stigma peribadi dengan positif afektif (r = -0.445) dan pendedahan kendiri dengan positif afektif (r = -0.400). Justeru, isu stigma dalam kalangan ODHA perlu ditangani demi mengurangkan impak terhadap kesihatan mental ODHA. Usaha seperti meningkatkan kempen kesedaran tentang HIV/AIDS dan saringan kesihatan mental serta kaunseling perlu dilakukan bagi meningkatkan kualiti hidup ODHA. Hasil kajian turut memberi implikasi terhadap polisi melibatkan ODHA serta usaha ke arah peningkatan sokongan sosial agar kehidupan mereka menjadi lebih baik dan harmoni.

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People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) who are facing HIV-related stigma have poor mental health. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stigma and mental health of PLHIV. Purposive sampling method was used involving self-identified PLHIV who are 18 years and older. This study used a questionnaire that incorporates HIV Stigma Scale and Mental Health Inventory (MHI-18). A total of 34 respondents were involved, and 52.9 percent of them have unhealthy level of depression and anxiety. In addition, there was a significant relationship between stigma and mental health (r = -0.405), anxiety (r = -0.379), positive affective (r = -0.479), negative self-image and mental health (r = -0.372) , anxiety (r = -0.400), depression (r = -0.349), positive affective (r = -0.476), public attitudes with mental health (r = -0.406), anxiety (r = -0.397), positive affective (r = -0.488), personalized stigma with positive affective (r = -0.445) and self-disclosure with positive affective (r = -0.400). Thus, stigma among PLHIV needs to be addressed in order to reduce the impact on the mental health. Efforts such as increasing awareness about HIV/AIDS, mental health screening and counseling should be done to improve the quality of life of PLHIV. The findings also have implications on policy involving PLHIV as well as effort toward increasing social support to make their lives better and more harmonious.


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