Hubungan Jardine Matheson & Co. (JM) dan Dinasti Ch’ing 1832-1912: Dari Musuh Menjadi Kawan (The Relationship Between Jardine Matheson & Co. (JM) And Ch’ing Dynasty 1832-1912: From Foes To Friends)

Fairisa Othman, Suffian Mansor, Mohd Samsudin

Abstract


This article examines the relationship and effort made by Jardine Matheson & Co. (JM) to establish the relationship with Ch’ing Government. The discussion started establishment of JM in 1832 until the end of the Dynasty Ch’ing in 1912. During that period, the relationship between Jardine Matheson & Co. (JM) and Ch’ing Dynasty undergoes a phase of change. In the early stage, they do not have good relationship due to different policies and views related to diplomacy and trade. The Ch’ing government practices the ‘closed door’ policy whereas the West practices free trade. The Western traders like JM see China as a profitable economic source and trade. However, the unwillingness of Ch’ing Government in changing the policy and imposing law restrictions upon the British traders leads JM to influence the British Government to use force against China. Finally, the British Government agrees to declare war and China had to conform to British’s strength. British’s victory enables JM to expand in China. During the middle of 19th century, JM does not only depend on opium trade alone, but started to involve in manufacturing, services and others. To strengthen the company’s position, the second generation of JM starts to restore the relationship with the Ch’ing government. Various efforts are made by JM such as appointing the Chinese as the comprador or middleman, giving financial loans and assisting in developmental plans by the Ch’ing Government. Therefore, this research conducted through history research methodology by examining the records, documents and correspondence of JM and the Ch’ing Government at the Janus Archives, University of Cambridge and The National Archives, London. The findings show that JM has successfully established relations with the Ch’ing Government economically due the Ch’ing Government itself needs the help and support of the West in its efforts to develop and modernize the Self-Strengthening Movement (GMD) in China.

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JEBAT : Malaysian Journal of History, Politics & Strategic Studies, 
Center for Research in History, Politics and International Affairs,
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi Selangor, Malaysia.

eISSN: 2180-02551

ISSN: 012-5644