Pemilikan rumah bergadaijanji di Malaysia: Isu dan solusi jangka masa panjang (Mortgaged home ownership in Malaysia: Issues and long term solutions)

Hasniyati Hamzah, Nazari Ismail

Abstract


Abstrak

Sejak kemerdekaan, kerajaan Malaysia menyokong pemilikan rumah dalam kalangan rakyat berdasarkan faktor kestabilan sivil dan penjanaan ekonomi. Namun begitu, polisi dan penyelidikan tempatan jarang memperincikan jenis pemilikan rumah iaitu pemilikan mutlak, pemilikan separa dan pemilikan bergadaijanji sedangkan majoriti pemilikan rumah di bawah gadaijanji. Pemilikan rumah bergadaijanji tidak mutlak selagi hutang rumah tidak dijelaskan sepenuhnya. Kesejahteraan pemilik rumah bergantung kepada kemampuan bayaran balik hutang dan kos perumahan. Oleh itu, terdapat keperluan bagi penyelidik perumahan menggunakan rangka kerja yang mengandungi definisi, konsep dan teori yang betul untuk mengelakkan tanggapan yang salah mengenai pencapaian pemilikan rumah di Malaysia. Kajian ini bertujuan membentangkan isu berkaitan sistem pemilikan rumah bergadaijanji dan seterusnya mencadangkan solusi jangka masa panjang. Metodologi kajian bersandarkan pendekatan Struktur Penyediaan Perumahan yang diperkenalkan oleh Ball (1986) dan menggunakan analisis heuristik data sekunder yang disokong oleh kajian literatur. Secara amnya, didapati bahawa pemilikan rumah secara bergadaijanji merupakan punca harga rumah meningkat di luar kawalan dan menyumbang kepada tahap hutang isi rumah yang kritikal. Sumbangan utama kajian ini ialah penggunaan konsep yang betul dalam mendapatkan gambaran sebenar pemilikan rumah, seterusnya memperbaiki persepsi pembuat dasar dan penyelidik mengenai pemilikan rumah di Malaysia. Enam solusi jangka panjang dicadangkan bagi mengukuhkan kemampanan sektor perumahan iaitu anjakan paradigma mengenai rumah dan pemilikannya, pendidikan kewangan dan perundangan perumahan, kawalan pembelian dan harga rumah, pengukuhan sektor penyewaan persendirian, pengukuhan sektor penyewaan awam dan pengenalan pemegangan pertengahan.

Kata kunci: hutang, institusi, kemampuan perumahan, kemampanan perumahan, pemegangan rumah, pemilikan rumah bergadaijanji



Abstract

Since independence, the Malaysian government has supported home ownership among the people based on civil stability and economic growth factors. However, local policy and research rarely distinguish the type of home ownership i.e. absolute, partial and mortgaged ownership, when the majority of ownership is with mortgage. Ownership with mortgage is not absolute until the loan is fully paid. Homeowners’ wellbeing depends on the ability to repay the loan and housing costs. Therefore, studies on home ownership need to be guided by a framework that contains the correct definitions, concepts and theories to avoid erroneous conclusions on the achievements of Malaysian home ownership. This study aims to present the issues caused by the mortgaged home ownership system and propose long-term solutions. The methodology of the study is based on the Structure of Housing Provision approach by Ball (1986) and used a heuristic analysis of secondary data supported by literature review. Generally, it was found that mortgaged home ownership caused uncontrollable house price escalation and contributed to the critical level of household debt. The main contribution of this study lies in the use of an accurate conceptual lens to yield the actual representation of home ownership, therefore rectifying the perceptions of policy makers and researchers on home ownership in Malaysia. Six long-term solutions are proposed to improve the sustainability of the housing sector namely paradigm shift regarding housing and home ownership, housing finance and law education, house purchase and price control, strengthening the private rental sector, strengthening the public rental sector and introduction of intermediate tenures.

Keywords: debt, institution, housing affordability, housing sustainability, housing tenure, mortgaged home ownership


Keywords


pemegangan rumah; pemilikan rumah bergadaijanji; kemampuan perumahan; hutang; institusi; kemampanan perumahan

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References


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