Geometri dan peranannya dalam reka bentuk bandar Islamik (Geometry and its role in Islamic urban design)

Fazlena Abd Rahim, Norsidah Ujang, Mohamed Mohamed Tolba Said

Abstract


Abstrak

Geometri merupakan elemen utama yang digunakan bagi membina imej reka bentuk bandar Islamik bernilai estetik. Namun begitu, aplikasi bentuk bebas sebagai dasar dalam menyusun atur elemen perbandaran kurang mengutamakan fungsi dan nilai estetik reka bentuk geometri. Kesannya, susun atur elemen reka bentuk bandar yang tidak teratur, fungsi penggunaan ruang yang tidak optimum kepada pengguna dan kurang nilai estetik. Artikel ini membincangkan konsep geometri sebagai prinsip reka bentuk bandar Islamik dan penerapannya dalam konteks reka bentuk perbandaran. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mewujudkan reka bentuk ruang bandar yang mempunyai kualiti fungsi dan nilai estetik yang tinggi sebagai prinsip asas alam bina Islamik di Malaysia. Objektif kajian adalah mengenal pasti peranan dan fungsi geometri dalam reka bentuk bandar Islamik melalui kajian sejarah penciptaan matematik geometri dan corak geometri Islamik. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah penerokaan (exploratory) ulasan literatur berkaitan sejarah tamadun alam bina Islam yang melibatkan konsep, peranan dan fungsi geometri disokong oleh pemerhatian dan pengalaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kepentingan reka bentuk geometri dalam penghasilan reka bentuk bandar yang berfungsi dan bernilai estetik. Kajian ini menyumbang kepada pemahaman maksud, konsep dan tujuan aplikasi reka bentuk geometri yang perlu diterapkan di dalam membentuk imej dan identiti reka bandar berciri Islamik yang lebih menarik di Malaysia.


Kata kunci: bandar Islamik, geometri, identiti, imej, reka bentuk bandar, seni

 

Abstract

Geometry is the main element used in creating Islamic urban design with aesthetic value. However, the use of free form as a fundamental for structuring urban elements has given less emphasis on the function and aesthetic value of geometrical design. This results in an irregular layout of urban design elements, a non-optimal space usage function for users and less aesthetic value. This paper discusses the concept of geometry as the principle of Islamic city design and how it can be applied in the context of urban design. The aim of this study is to create an urban space design that has a high quality of function and aesthetic value as the basic principle of Islamic built environment in Malaysia. The objective of this study is to investigate the the roles and functions of geometry in the Islamic urban design though the history of mathematic geometry and Islamic geometrical patterns. This study uses exploratory methods of literature reviews related to the history of Islamic civilization history that involves concepts, roles and geometric functions supported by observation and experience. The literature review covers aspects of geometric history, Islamic geometrical pattern history and its function in urban design. The findings expressed the importance of geometric design in the production of functional cities with aesthetic value. This study contributes to the understanding of the meaning, concept and aim of geometric design applications that should be applied in building the image and identity of a more attractive Islamic city design in Malaysia.


Keywords: Islamic urban, geometry, identity, image, urban design, arts


Full Text:

PDF

References


A-Mu’ti, F. F. (2003). The Kaabah from the Prophet Ibrahim till now. Terjemahan Al-Falah Foundation. Islamic INC, Egypt.

Abu Lughod, J. (2013). The Islamic city: Historic myths, Islamic essence, and contemporary relevance. The Urban Design Reader, 13.

Ahmed, A. S. (2014). The spiritual search of art over Islamic architecture with non-figurative representations. Journal of Islamic Architecture, 3(1), 1-13.

Al Faruqi, R. (1973). Islam and art. Studia Islamica, 3(7), 81-110.

Ali, W. (2006). Beauty and easthetics in Islam. Essays in Honour of Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu. Istanbul, 1RCICA. Retrieved from www.muslimheritage.com.

Al Kawthari, A. S. M. (2014). Mixed gatherings: A detailed response regarding gender interaction. Retrieved from http://seekershub.org.

Al-Lahham, A. H. E. (2014). Traditionalism or traditiona-lieism: Authentication or fabrication? International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR, 8(3), 64-73.

Almanac, E. B. (2002). Encyclopedia Britannica.

Al-Mubarakpuri, S. R. (1995). Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar).

Annenberg Foundation. (2017). Shape and Space in Geometry. Annenberg Learner. Teachers’ Lab. The Annenberg/CBP Math and Science Project. Retrieved from www.learner.org/teacherslab/math/geometry/

Alshuwaikhat, H. M. (1999). Planning the 21st century urban neighborhood: Learning from the previous concepts. Journal of King Saud University, 13-29.

Awan, N. M. (2009). Quran and Mathematics-I. Jihat al-Islam, 3(01).

Behrens-Abouseif, D. (1992). Islamic architecture in Cairo: An introduction. Vol. 3. Brill.

Ben-Hamouche, M. (2011). How justice and rights in Islam shape urbanism. Medianet. Retrieved from http://medinanet.org.

Berlinghoff, W. P., & Gouvêa, F. Q. (2004). Math through the Ages: A gentle history for teachers and others. MAA.

Borden, I. & Dunster, D. (1995). Architecture and the sites of history, interpretations of buildings and cities. Watson-Guptill Publications.

Brunn, S. D., Williams, J. F., & Zeigler, D. J. (2003). Cities of the world: World regional urban development. Rowman & Littlefield.

Buang, A. (1992) Epistemological Problems in Human Geography: An overview and a preliminary Islamic evaluation. The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences. 9 (1), 1-18

Buang, A. (2010). Reconstructing grand theory in Islamic human geography: Some preliminary notes. Geografia Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 6(3), 40-45.

Burckhardt, T. (2009). Art of Islam, languange and meaning. World Wisdon Inc.

Ching, F. D. (2014). Architecture: Form, space, and order. John Wiley & Sons.

Chorbachi, W. A. K. (1989). In the Tower of Babel: Beyond symmetry in Islamic design. Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 17(4), 751-789.

Clark, E. (2004). The art of the Islamic Garden. Crowood Press.

Diab, O. (2010). Egypt: We don't need no segregation. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com

Division of Education (2004). Islamic art and culture: A resource for teachers. Washington, National Gallery of Art.

Dunham, W. (1994). The Mathematical Universe. An Alphabetical Journey Through the Great Proofs, Problems and Personalities. New York: Wiley, c1994,1.

Ead, H. A. (1999). History of Islamic science: The Alchemy. Retrieved from http://www. alchemywebsite. com.

El Diwani, R. (2005). Islamic contributions to the West. Lake Superior State University, 9.

El-Deen, H. (1994). Paradise on earth: Historical gardens of the arid Middle East. Arid Lands Newsletter, 36, 5-11.

Ewing, R., & Handy, S. (2009). Measuring the unmeasurable: Urban design qualities related to walkability. Journal of Urban Design, 14(1), 65-84.

Falakian, N., & Falakian, A. (2013). A survey on form and figure in architecture. Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci., 5(10), 1323-1328.

Feeney, J. (2012). Cairo a city adorned. Saudi Aramco world. Retrieved from http: archive.aramcoworld.com

Gosse, A. B. (1916). The civilization of the ancient Egyptians. (Eds.) Frederick, A. Stokes Company.

Grattan-Guinness, I. (Eds). (2002). Companion encyclopedia of the history and philosophy of the mathematical sciences. Routledge.

Habibshaikh. (2013). Madinah has best Islamic urban planning. Retrieved from http://www.arabnews.com.

Hakim, B. S. (2013). Arabic Islamic cities. Rev, Routledge.

Heilbron, J. L. (2000). Geometry civilized: History, culture and technique. Oxford University Press.

Husin, A. (1998). Suatu tempat bernama Kaabah. Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia.

Isa, N. M. (2011). Cities design and planning with people’s perception consideration: A methodology to elicit the perceptions of experts on the meaning of Islamic built environment in Malaysia. 1-14. AERUS XII / Madrid.

Itewi, M. (2007). Towards a modern theory of Islamic architecture. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1(2), 153-156.

Jamalinezhad, M., Talakesh, S. M., & Soltani, S. H. K. (2012). Islamic principles and culture applied to improve life quality in Islamic cities. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 35, 330-334.

Kaptan, K. (2013). Early Islamic architecture and structural configurations. International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development, 3(2), 5-12.

Khaled, A. (2012). University gender segregation move sparks controversy university world news. 21.9.2012. Retrieved from http://www.universityworldnews.com

Khalil, K. F., & Wahid, J. (2013). The proportional relations systems of Islamic architecture. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(1).

Kirabaev, N. S. (2002). Values in Islamic culture and the experience of history. Vol. 9. CRVP.

Koliji, H. (2012). Revisiting the squinch: From squaring the circle to circling the square. Persian Architecture and Mathematics. 291-305.

Legendre G. L (2011). Mathematic of space. Architectural design, Wiley.com, (pp.23)

Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city (Vol. 11). MIT press.

Mollaie, A. F., & Rashedi, A. (2012). The effect of modernism on spatial-physical development of Iranian-Islamic cities such as Tehran. International Journal of Political Science, 3(6), 31-49.

Mortada, H. (2003). Traditional Islamic principles of built environment. Routledge.

Mursib, G., & Rasdi, M. T. H. M. (2016). Regionalisme dalam seni bina Malaysia. Era moden, pasca moden dan global. Kuala Lumpur, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Naby A., H. M. S. (2014). The treatment of the architectural unit above openings of the Mamluk and Ottoman Facades in Cairo. Jurnal of Islamic Architecture, 3(2), 82-93.

Omer, S. (2007). Integrating the Islamic worldview into the planning of neighbourhoods. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 12(2).

Omer, S. (2008). Islam, architecture & urban planning. Arah Pendidikan Sdn Bhd.

Omer, S. (2010). Conceptualizing Islamic architecture. Al-Shajarah, 15(2), 199-228.

Omer, S. (2012). The concepts of god, man, and the environment in Islam: Implications for Islamic architecture. Journal of Islamic Architecture, 2(1), 1-12.

Rabbat, N. (1996). Al-Azhar Mosque: An Architectural Chronicle of Cairo's History. Muqarnas, 13, 45-67.

Rahman, M. M. (2015). Islamic Architecture and Arch. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 2(1).

Raynaud, D. (2012). Abu al-Wafa' Latinus? A study of method. Historia Mathematica, 39, 34-83.

Ruggles, D. F., & Taboroff, J. (2016). Gardens and landscaping from Oxford Islamic studies online. Muslim Journeys. Retrieved from bridgingcultures.neh.gov.

Saoud, R. (2004). Introduction to Muslim art. Foundation for science technology and civilization.

Saoud, R. (2002). An introduction to Islamic architecture. Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization, 2-6.

Sidawi, B. (2013). Understanding the vocabulary of the Islamic architectural heritage. Global Built Environment Review, 8(2).

Siddiqui, E. (2010). Islamic art. Muslim Student Association, Colorado State University.

Smith, M. E. (2007). Form and meaning in the earliest cities: A new approach to ancient urban planning. Journal of Planning History, 6(1), 3-47.

Stanley, B. W., Stark, B. L., Johnston, K. L., & Smith, M. E. (2012). Urban open spaces in historical perspective: A Transdisciplinary typology and analysis. Urban Geography, 33(8), 1089-1117.

Sumrahadi, A., & Suryandari, R. Y. (2013). Praktik filantropi sosial bagi pembangunan aktiviti seni dan budaya: Suatu wacana. Geografia Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 9(3). 95-106.

Tibbalds, F. (2006). Making people friendly towns: Improving the public environment in towns and cities. New York, Spon Prees.

Velibeyoğlu, K. (1999). Urban design in the postmodern context.wade. The historical setting. Retrieved from http://patterninislamicart.com.

Wade, D. (2006). The Historical Setting. Retrieved from http://patterninislamicart.com.

Yau, S. T., & Nadis, S. (2010). The shape of inner space: String theory and the geometry of the universe's hidden dimensions. Basic Books.

Yilmaz, S. (2014). The uniqueness of Islamic culture. Jurnal of History Culture and Art Research, 3(3), 87-97.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.