Amalan pembelajaran dan kesannya terhadap pembentukan pengetahuan serta kemahiran perniagaan dalam kalangan Generasi Z (Learning practices and effect on the knowledge and skills development among Z generation)

Suraiya Ishak, Ahmad Raflis Che Omar, Fahruddin Mustafa Al Bakri, Lokhman Hakim Osman

Abstract


Pembelajaran boleh mengubah dan membentuk tingkah laku pada seseorang individu.  Pembelajaran memberi kesan kepada kognitif, psikomotor dan afektif individu. Berdasarkan Teori Pembelajaran Pengalaman Kolb, proses pembelajaran pengalaman melibatkan 4 peringkat terdiri pengalaman konkrit, konseptualisasi abstrak, pemerhatian reflektif dan eksperimen aktif. Sehubungan itu, kajian telah meneliti kesan pembelajaran teknik mengurus perniagaan terhadap pengetahuan dan kemahiran dalam kalangan pelajar sekolah menengah. Dimensi pembelajaran merangkumi aspek kurikulum (konseptualisasi abstrak) dan ko-kurikulum (eksperimen aktif). Metod survei telah dilakukan ke atas sekumpulan pelajar tingkatan lima (5) di sebuah sekolah di Seremban, Negeri Sembilan. Analisis deskriptif dan ujian t sampel berpasangan telah diaplikasi bagi meneliti kesan pembelajaran mengurus perniagaan ke atas tahap pengetahuan dan kemahiran pelajar. Penemuan menunjukkan pembelajaran subjek Perdagangan dan Perakaunan serta aktiviti keusahawanan di sekolah dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan dan kemahiran pelajar mengenai perniagaan. Pelajar yang terdedah kepada subjek Perdagangan dan Perakaunan didapati lebih menonjolkan tahap penguasaan pengetahuan dan kemahiran mengurus perniagaan. Pembabitan dalam aktiviti keusahawanan di sekolah pula dapat menjadi pelengkap tetapi tidak boleh berdiri sebagai kaedah tunggal mempelajari ilmu berkaitan mengurus perniagaan dan keusahawanan untuk pelajar sekolah menengah. Implikasinya, wujud keperluan untuk membangunkan permainan atau simulasi perniagaan yang menyamai realiti dunia perniagaan sebenar yang lebih kompleks dan mencabar bagi membina kemahiran mengurus perniagaan dalam kalangan generasi Z dengan lebih berkesan.

Kata kunci: Generasi Z, keusahawanan, pelajar sekolah, pembelajaran pengalaman, perniagaan, Teori Pembelajaran Pengalaman Kolb

Learning can change and develop individual behaviours. Learning have an influence on individual cognitive, psychomotor and affective. Based on the Kolb Experiential Learning Theory, learning process involves 4 stages comprises of concrete experiences, abstract conceptualization, reflective observation and active experimentation. Therefore, this study has examined the effect of business management learning on the knowledge and skills among the secondary school students.  The learning dimensions composed of the curriculum (abstract conceptualization) and co-curriculum (active experimentation). The survey had been conducted on a group of form 5 students from a school in Seremban Negeri Sembilan. The descriptive analysis and t-test for paired groups are applied to examine the effect of business management learning on the level of students’ knowledge and skills.  The finding shows the combination of learning the Commerce and Account subjects as well as joining the entrepreneurial activities in school has increased the business knowledge and skills of the students. Students who merely exposed to Commerce and Account subjects found to have mastered their basic knowledge and skills in business management. The involvement in the school entrepreneurial activities has the complementing effect, but insufficient to stand as a single mode to instil business knowledge and skills among the secondary school students. The findings implied that there is a need to develop business games or simulation to imitate a real business context with certain degree of complexity and challenges in order to develop the Z Generation business skills more effectively. 

Keywords: Z Generation, entrepreneurship, school student, learning, experiential learning, business, Kolb Experiential Learning Theory


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