Kesejahteraan hidup warga emas: Perancangan berasaskan gender (Well-being among the elderly: Gender-based planning)

Nur Syakiran Akmal Ismail, Norehan Abdullah, Kalthum Hassan, Shamzaeffa Samsudin, Ummu Atiyah Ahmad Zakuan, Rohana Yusof, Nurzalyna Mohamed Zaki

Abstract


Abstrak

 

Malaysia dijangka akan menghadapi fenomena menua tahun 2030. Pada tahun 2020 sahaja, warga tua di Malaysia dijangka mencecah 3.21 juta orang. Arus modenisasi banyak mengubah struktur keluarga di Malaysia sehingga perancangan masa hadapan dilihat penting dalam kehidupan. Pertimbangan dalam menempuh kehidupan waktu tua adalah penting untuk masa hadapan bagi mencapai kesejahteraan hidup. Kajian ini dilakukan bagi mengenalpasti keutamaan penyusunan hidup masa tua bagi lelaki dan wanita di Malaysia. Skop kajian ini meliputi tiga wilayah koridor ekonomi (NCER, ECER dan Iskandar) dan bancian yang dibuat terhadap bakal warga emas yang dipilih secara persampelan rawak berstrata. Sejumlah 1153 responden berbangsa Melayu yang terdiri daripada kumpulan umur 40-59 tahun telah berjaya diperolehi dan dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa tiada perbezaan pilihan kehidupan masa tua antara lelaki dan wanita. Berbanding lelaki, responden wanita didapati lebih cenderung untuk tinggal bersama anak-anak berbanding tinggal bersendirian sebagai pilihan kedua. Responden lelaki tidak berminat untuk tinggal di institusi pondok, berbanding wanita yang menganggap tinggal di pondok sebagai salah satu alternatif pilihan hidup bagi meningkatkan pengetahuan agama mereka. Walau bagaimanapun, keseluruhan kajian menunjukkan responden lebih memberi keutamaan untuk tinggal di kediaman sendiri berdasarkan faktor keselesaan untuk diri mereka. Oleh itu, hasil kajian ini dapat menyumbang idea kepada pihak berwajib dalam merancang dasar-dasar yang sesuai untuk bakal warga emas masa hadapan. 

 

Kata kunci: gender, kehidupan masa tua, kesejahteraan hidup, perancangan, pilihan, warga emas

 

Abstract

 

Malaysia is expected to face the aging phenomenon in 2030. In 2020 alone, the number of elderly in Malaysia is expected to reach 3.21 million people. Modernization has greatly altered the family structure in Malaysia and hence promotes the importance of future planning. Consideration to confront the elderly life is important to warrant an individual’s future well-being. This study was conducted to identify the prefered elderly living arrangement among Malaysian men and women. The scope of this study covers three regional economic corridors (NCER, ECER and Iskandar) and surveys were conducted to future elderly selected through stratified random sampling. A total of 1153 respondents comprising of Malay men and women with age between 40-59 years were successfully surveyed and analyzed descriptively. The results show that there is no difference in the choice of elderly living preferences between men and women. Compared to men, women respondents are more likely to stay with their children than to live alone as the second choice. Male respondents are not interested to live in religious learning institutions (institusi pondok), while women respondents consider living in religious learning institutions as one of the alternatives to enhance their religious knowledge. However, the overall finding shows that both men and women respondents prefer to stay in their own homes for comfortable living. Therefore, this study has provided some ideas to the related agencies in planning suitable policies for the future elderly.

 

Keywords: gender, elderly living, well-being, planning, preference, elderly


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