PERSEPSI PERKHIDMATAN PENGEMBANGAN DAN AMALAN PERTANIAN BAIK PEKEBUN KECIL SAWIT PERSENDIRIAN (Perception of the Extension Services and Good Agricultural Practices Among Independent Oil Palm Smallholders)

Izzurazlia Ibrahim, Abd Hair Awang, Azima Abdul Manaf

Abstract


Perkhidmatan pengembangan merupakan salah satu khidmat yang disediakan dalam sektor pertanian. Lembaga Minyak Sawit Malaysia (MPOB) merupakan salah satu agensi yang menyediakan perkhidmatan pendidikan pengembangan kepada pekebun kecil sawit persendirian di bawah Unit Pengembangan dan Latihan. Kumpulan Pusat Tunjuk Ajar Sawit (TUNAS) yang terletak di bawah unit ini bertanggungjawab memberikan khidmat pendidikan pengembangan seperti ceramah teknikal, tunjuk kaedah, nasihat dan bimbingan di tapak melalui pegawai TUNAS yang dilantik. Mereka bertanggungjawab memberi perkhidmatan seperti menyampaikan maklumat dan teknologi terkini berkaitan tanaman sawit selain menyalurkan skim bantuan kerajaan kepada pekebun kecil yang terlibat. Kualiti perkhidmatan pegawai TUNAS memberi impak kepada amalan pertanian baik pekebun kecil sawit. Walau bagaimanapun, pekebun kecil sawit persendirian masih menghadapi pelbagai kekangan yang menyebabkan mereka sukar untuk maju sekiranya tiada sokongan dan bantuan. Juga faktor kesedaran yang terhad terhadap teknologi baru dan amalan pertanian baik menyukarkan pekebun kecil untuk memenuhi keperluan Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). Justeru, objektif artikel ini adalah untuk menilai persepsi perkhidmatan pengembangan pegawai TUNAS dan amalan pertanian baik pekebun kecil yang berada di Saratok, Sarawak. Seramai 173 orang pekebun kecil menilai pegawai TUNAS yang memberi perkhidmatan pengembangan kepada mereka menerusi borang soal selidik. Kajian mendapati majoriti pekebun kecil memberikan nilai tinggi kepada pegawai TUNAS dalam komponen komunikasi, sikap dan keperibadian, dan kepimpinan. Selain itu, pekebun kecil memberikan nilai sederhana kepada pegawai TUNAS bagi komponen pengetahuan dan tunjuk cara teknik pertanian. Manakala impak kepada amalan pertanian baik pula, didapati pekebun kecil yang mengikut pematuhan adalah amalan pembajaan sawit dan amalan penuaian sawit. Manakala amalan sistem perparitan, rekod dan integrasi serta amalan bebas penyakit dan parasit masih berada pada tahap sederhana selepas menerima pemindahan teknologi. Oleh itu, unit pengembangan MPOB perlu memperbanyakkan latihan dan kursus kepada pegawai TUNAS sejajar dengan keperluan pekebun kecil dalam meningkatkan produktiviti sawit.

Kata kunci: Pegawai TUNAS MPOB, pekebun kecil sawit persendirian, pendidikan pengembangan, kualiti perkhidmatan, amalan pertanian baik

(Perception of the Extension Services and Good Agricultural PracticesAmong Independent Oil Palm Smallholders)

Extension services are one of the services provided in the agricultural sector. The Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) is one of the agencies providing extension education services to independent oil palm smallholders under the Development and Training Unit. The TUNAS Center group (TUNAS) located under this unit is responsible for providing extension education services such as technical talks, demonstration methods, advice and guidance on site through appointed TUNAS officers. They are responsible for providing services such as delivering up-to-date information and technology related to palm oil as well as channeling government aid schemes to smallholders involved. However, independent oil palm smallholders still face various constraints which cause them difficult to advance if there is no support and assistance. Also limited awareness of new technologies and agricultural practices make it difficult for smallholders to meet the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) requirements. Therefore, the objective of this article is to evaluate perception of the extension services and good agricultural practices among independent oil palm smallholders in Saratok, Sarawak. A total of 173 oil palm smallholders have evaluated the TUNAS officers who have provided extension services to them through questionnaire. The study found that the majority of the oil palm smallholders have highly evaluated the TUNAS officers for the components of communication, attitude and personality, and leadership. In addition, the oil palm smallholders have evaluated averagely for the components of knowledge and demonstration of farming techniques. On the other hand, for the impacts of good agricultural practices, the study found that there were independent oil palm smallholders who have complied with the procedures of palm trees fertilisation and harvesting fresh palm fruit. While drainage systems, records and integration, as well as disease and parasites-free practices remain average after receiving technology transfer. Therefore, the MPOB development unit should increase training and courses for TUNAS officers consistent with the needs of the oil palm smallholders in improving the productivity of palm oil.

Keywords: MPOB TUNAS officers, independent oil palm smallholders, extension education, training service quality, good agricultural practices


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