What Drives Employee Performance? Revisiting the Human Performance System Model

Intan Soraya Rosdi, Mazni Alias, Norhazlin Ismail

Abstract


ABSTRACT

The performance of firms is a result of the work performance of its individual employees making up its valuable workforce. While there exist several research models offering their perspectives of work performance factors, the human performance system model offers a relatively more detailed and comprehensive range of determinants of individual work performance. However, empirical evidence for the model seems absent from literature and qualitative evidence seems scant and only limited to a few case studies. The minimal evidence suggests that this area is still in need of exploration. Hence, this paper explores the constructs in the human performance system model from qualitative data through focus group discussion sessions on factors determining individual work performance. The model’s six work performance factors are performance specification, task support, consequences, feedback, skills/knowledge, and individual capacity. Data comes from 280 research participants engaged through 33 focus group discussion sessions. The results are consistent with the work performance factors proposed by the human performance system model. Besides lending support to the human performance system model, another important contribution of the study is the identification of research variables, which can be used for the development of a survey questionnaire for future empirical testing of the model.

Keywords: Work performance; human performance system model; organizational support; career awareness; competency; self-efficacy; rewards and incentives; performance targets; performance feedback.

ABSTRAK

Prestasi firma adalah hasil dari prestasi kerja setiap pekerjanya yang membentuk tenaga kerjanya yang berharga. Walaupun terdapat beberapa model penyelidikan yang menawarkan perspektif mereka mengenai faktor prestasi kerja, model sistem prestasi manusia menawarkan julat penentu prestasi kerja individu yang lebih terperinci dan komprehensif. Walau bagaimanapun, bukti empirikal untuk model nampaknya tidak ada dalam literatur dan bukti kualitatif nampaknya sedikit dan hanya terhad pada beberapa kajian kes. Bukti minimum menunjukkan bahawa isu ini masih memerlukan penerokaan. Oleh itu, kajian ini meneroka konstruk dalam model sistem prestasi manusia dari data kualitatif melalui sesi perbincangan kumpulan fokus mengenai faktor-faktor yang menentukan prestasi kerja individu. Enam faktor prestasi kerja adalah spesifikasi prestasi, sokongan tugas, akibat, maklum balas, kemahiran / pengetahuan, dan kemampuan individu. Data berasal dari 280 peserta kajian yang terlibat melalui 33 sesi perbincangan kumpulan fokus. Hasilnya selaras dengan faktor prestasi kerja yang dicadangkan oleh model sistem prestasi manusia. Selain memberi sokongan kepada model sistem prestasi manusia, satu lagi sumbangan penting dalam kajian ini adalah pengenalpastian pemboleh ubah penyelidikan, yang dapat digunakan untuk membentuk soal selidik bagi pengujian empirikal model pada masa akan datang.

Kata kunci: Prestasi kerja; model sistem prestasi manusia; sokongan organisasi; kesedaran kerjaya; kecekapan; keberkesanan diri, ganjaran dan insentif, sasaran prestasi, maklum balas prestasi.


Keywords


Work performance, human performance system model, organizational support, career awareness, competency, self-efficacy, rewards and incentives, performance targets, performance feedback

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