Kesan Program Promosi Terhadap Aktiviti Eksport Syarikat Kecil dan Sederhana di Malaysia: Satu Pendekatan Ekonometrik

Abu H Ayob, Hazrul Izuan Shahiri, Mohd Hasimi Yaacob

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Kerajaan memainkan peranan penting dalam membantu aktiviti eksport terutama dalam kalangan syarikat kecil dan sederhana (SKS) melalui penganjuran program promosi eksport (PPE) yang komprehensif. Bagaimanapun, kajian lepas mendapati program promosi eksport di kebanyakan negara membangun mempunyai pelbagai kekangan sehingga gagal mencapai objektif penganjurannya. Tujuan kajian ini dijalankan adalah untuk menilai kesan PPE terhadap aktiviti eksport dalam kalangan SKS di Malaysia. Model penilaian ini dibentuk berdasarkan teori tingkah laku terancang (Theory of Planned Behavior) menggunakan tiga instrumen iaitu kesedaran, persepsi keberkesanan dan kekerapan penggunaan; serta hubungannya terhadap kecenderungan meneruskan aktiviti eksport. Penilaian telah dibuat terhadap empat program: kursus/latihan, misi/pameran perdagangan antarabangsa, bantuan kewangan dan insentif cukai, dianalisa menggunakan kaedah ekonometrik regresi dua peringkat. Keputusan mendapati bahawa kesedaran dan persepsi keberkesanan telah meningkatkan kekerapan penggunaan semua PPE, tetapi hanya kekerapan penyertaan dalam program kursus/latihan dan misi/pameran perdagangan antarabangsa sahaja yang menggalakkan SKS meneruskan pengeksportan. Sebaliknya, bantuan kewangan dan insentif cukai tidak memberi kesan signifikan kepada pengeksport.

Kata kunci: Program promosi eksport; kesedaran; kekerapan penggunaan; persepsi keberkesanan; aktiviti eksport; regresi dua peringkat

ABSTRACT

Government plays an important role for facilitating export activites particularly among small and medium sized entreperises (SMEs) by organizing comprehensive export promotion programs (EPPs). Despite that, prior research found that EPPs in many developing countries confront with many challenges that have failed to reach the objectives. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of EPPs on export activities of SMEs in Malaysia. The evaluation model is developed based on the theory of planned behavior by using three instruments: awareness, perception of usefulness and frequency of use; and the relationships with propensity for export continuation. The evaluation was made on four programs: courses/trainings, international trade missions/shows, financial assistance and tax incentives, analyzed using an econometric approach of two-level regression. Results show that the awareness and perception of usefulness have increased the frequency of use for all EPPs, but only active participation in courses/trainings and international trade missions/shows has encouraged SMEs to continue exporting. However, financial assistance and tax incentives have no significant impact to exporters.

Keywords: Export promotion program; awareness; frequency of use; perception of usefulness; export activites; two-level regression


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