PENGARUH FAKTOR PEKERJAAN TERHADAP PRESENTEEISM DAN KEPUASAN KERJA (The Influence of Job Factors towards Presenteeism and Job Satisfaction)

Sarah Mahfuz, Wan Shahrazad Wan Sulaiman, Fatimah Omar, Zainah Ahmad Zamani

Abstract


Presenteeism ialah fenomena pekerja hadir bekerja walaupun sakit. Presenteeism telah menjadi satu masalah yang penting kepada organisasi kerana memberi kesan kepada produktiviti dan kesejahteraan pekerja. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk meneliti hubungan antara faktor pekerjaan, presenteeism dan kepuasan kerja. Kajian ini juga turut meneliti peranan presenteeism sebagai pengantara dalam hubungan antara faktor pekerjaan terhadap kepuasan kerja. Faktor pekerjaan yang dikaji ialah kawalan pekerjaan, tuntutan pekerjaan, sokongan sosial dan ketidakjaminan pekerjaan. Kajian ini menggunakan reka bentuk kajian rentas dengan melibatkan sampel kajian seramai 663 orang penjawat awam daripada enam jabatan/kementerian di Putrajaya. Alat kajian yang digunakan ialah Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Job Insecurity Scale (JIS) dan Brayfield and Rothe Index of Job Satisfaction. Hipotesis kajian diuji dengan menggunakan ujian regresi dan bootstrapping. Keputusan kajian mendapati semua faktor pekerjaan iaitu kawalan pekerjaan, tuntutan pekerjaan, sokongan sosial dan ketidakjaminan pekerjaan mempunyai pengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan kerja. Selanjutnya presenteeism mempunyai pengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan kerja. Presenteeism juga didapati berperanan sebagai pengantara dalam hubungan antara kawalan pekerjaan, sokongan sosial dan ketidakjaminan pekerjaan dengan kepuasan kerja. Kajian ini diharap dapat memberi pencerahan tentang hubungan antara faktor pekerjaan, presenteeism dan kepuasan kerja dalam konteks perkhidmatan awam di Malaysia.

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Presenteeism is a phenomenon when a worker comes to work while being sick. Presenteeism has become an issue in organizations because of its consequences on organizational productivity and employees’ well-being. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between job factors, presenteeism, and job satisfaction. Additionally, this study also examined the mediating role of presenteeism in the relationship between job factors and job satisfaction. In this study, the job factors that were examined were job control, job demand, social support, and job insecurity. Based on a cross sectional design, the study recruited 663 public service officers from six departments/ministries located in Putrajaya. The data were gathered from a set of questionnaires namely Job Content Questionnaire, Job Insecurity Scale, Stanford Presenteeism Scale, and Index of Job Satisfaction. The results demonstrated that all job factors, namely job control, job demand, social support, and job insecurity contributed significantly towards job satisfaction. Next, on the investigation of job factors’ influence on presenteeism, only job demand did not influence presenteeism. Results also indicated that presenteeism has an influence on job satisfaction. Regarding the mediating role of presenteeism, bootstrapping analysis revealed that presenteeism mediated the relationship between job control, social support, and job insecurity towards job satisfaction. Findings of this study provided an insight on the relationship between job factors, presenteeism, and job satisfaction in the context of public service in Malaysia.


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