Eeg sebagai Kaedah Berkesan untuk Memahami Aktiviti Neural Berkaitan Keupayan Golongan Miskin Membuat Keputusan (Eeg as an Effective Method to Measure Neural Correlates of Decision-Making in Poverty)

Hiran Perera-W.A., Khazriyati Salehuddin, Rozainee Khairudin, Alexandre Schaefer


Kajian tentang kemiskinan mendapati bahawa kesempitan kewangan (monetary scarcity) boleh memberi kesan ke atas fungsi kognitif dan keupayaan untuk membuat keputusan (decision-making). Hal ini kerana individu yang tergolong dalam kategori miskin, yang mengalami kesempitan kewangan, adalah lebih mudah terkesan oleh isu-isu yang berkaitan dengan belanjawan. Keadaan yang memaksa mereka sentiasa memikirkan isu-isu berkaitan dengan hal-hal kewangan ini boleh menyebabkan berlakunya peningkatan bebanan kognitif (cognitive load) yang akhirnya memberi kesan ke atas kemampuan mereka untuk membuat keputusan dengan berkesan. Kajian-kajian tingkah laku telah menunjukkan bahawa kesempitan kewangan menghalang fungsi kognitif; kesempitan kewangan ini sering kali menjadi faktor signifikan yang memberi kesan ke atas kemampuan untuk membuat keputusan. Walau bagaimanapun, mengapa kesempitan kewangan dan bebanan kognitif menghalang prestasi kognitif, dan sistem-sitem pemprosesan neural yang manakah yang terkesan akibat daripada keadaan ini masih belum dapat dijelaskan. Walaupun wujudnya perbezaan tingkah laku antara minda yang mengalami kesempitan dengan minda yang tidak mengalami kesempitan, perbezaan dalam fungsi neuro-kognitif masih belum diterokai. Pemahaman ke atas fungsi neural tertentu akan membantu dalam mengenal pasti bagaimana kesempitan boleh mengakibatkan proses-proses neuro-kognitif tertentu terhalang. Salah satu cara untuk mengukur aktiviti neural di dalam otak manusia ini ialah dengan menggunakan elektroensefalografi (EEG) Potensi Berkaitan Peristiwa (Event-Related Potential, ERP), yang mampu menilai aktiviti-aktiviti neuro-temporal tertentu. Makalah ini mengetengahkan pentingnya kajian ke atas asas neurobiologi tentang bagaimana kemiskinan memberi kesan ke atas fungsi kognitif. Pemahaman ke atas tingkah laku berkaitan aktiviti-aktiviti neural tertentu akan dapat membantu dalam membangunkan program-program intervensi yang berkesan yang boleh disasarkan untuk meningkatkan kebolehan membuat keputusan bagi individu-individu yang tergolong dalam golongan miskin.Kata kunci: EEG; ERP; Kemisikinan; Kesempitan Kewangan; Kawalan eksekutif




Studies on poverty have found that monetary scarcity can affect cognitive functioning and decision-making abilities. This is because, individuals who are poor, who experience monetary scarcity, can be easily triggered by budgetary issues and increased cognitive load as a result of having to constantly think about financial issues that eventually affect their ability to make effective decisions. Behavioural studies have found how increased cognitive load impedes cognitive performance and often becomes a significant factor that affects decision-making abilities. However, it is still unclear how cognitive load as a result of scarcity hinders cognitive performance, and what neural processing systems are being affected. Although there are behavioural differences between scarce mind and the non-scarce, the differences in neurobiological processes remain unexplored. Understanding specific neural correlates associated with monetary scarcity will facilitate in identifying how scarcity can impede specific neurocognitive processes. One way to measure neurobiological activity is by using electroencephalography (EEG) event-related potentials (ERPs), which is capable of capturing intrinsic neuro-temporal activities. This paper highlights the importance of investigating the neurobiological basis of how poverty affects cognitive performance. Understanding behaviors related specific neural activities will help to facilitate in developing effective intervention programs that can be targeted to improve decision-making abilities for the poor.

Keywords: EEG; ERP; Poverty; Monetary Scarcity; Executive Function

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