Interpersonal Metadiscursive Features in contemporary Islamic Friday Sermon

Israa Ismaeel Mahmood, Zalina Mohd Kasim


The Islamic Friday sermon is one of the most influential and educational means that plays an effective role in shaping the attitudes and beliefs of the individuals and society at large. Through the use of a powerful language, religious orators affect congregations emotionally and intellectually to achieve the Friday sermon’s purposes. This paper examines how religious orators influence their listeners through the deployment of interactive and interactional metadiscourse features. The interpersonal metadiscourse is operated as framework to realize sermons as a form of social engagement, since it considers the crucial role of the use of discourse to manage both: the social relationship, and the organization of texts. Hyland's (2005) model of metadiscourse was adopted to analyse 30 transcriptions of Islamic Friday sermons delivered in the English language. The findings revealed that metadiscourse resources are used extensively, and that the orators rely more on the use of the interactional resources to achieve their persuasive aims. The findings will give insights on how metadiscourse markers can be effectively used to construct a persuasive context whether in religious discourse or other discourses such as spoken discourse. It gives meaningful hints to the students of religious schools about how to use metadiscourse features in formulating the sermon.


Keywords: interpersonal; metadiscourse; Friday sermon; interactive; interactional 

Full Text:



Abu Alyan, A. (2016). Friday sermon “khutbah” at the Mosque: Messages and emotions. In Carbaugh, D. (Ed.), The Handbook of Communication in Cross-cultural Perspective. New York, London: Routledge.

Ädel, A. (2006). Metadiscourse in L1 and L2 English. John Benjamins. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia.

Ädel, A. (2010). Just to give you kind of a map of where we are going: A taxonomy of metadiscourse in spoken and written academic English.

Nordic Journal of English Studies. Vol. 9(2), 69-97.

Ädel, A. (2012). "What I Want You to Remember Is…”: Audience orientation in monologic academic discourse. English Text Construction. Vol. 5(1), 101–127.

Ädel, A. & Mauranen, A., (2010). Metadiscourse: diverse and divided perspectives. Nordic J. English Stud. Vol. 9(2), 1-11.Albayrak, I. (2012). Friday Sermons and the Question of home-trained Imams in Australia. Australian EJournal of Theology. Vol. 19(1).

Albayrak, I. (2012). Friday sermons and the question of home-trained imams in Australia. Australian EJournal of Theology. Vol. 19(1), 29-42

Aziz, R. A., Jin, C. C. & Nordin, N. M. (2016). The use of interactional metadiscourse in the construction of gender identities among Malaysian ESL learners. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature. Vol. 22(1).

Barlow, M. (2003). MonoConc Pro 2.2: A Professional Concordance Program. Athelstan.

Blagojevic, S. (2004). Metadiscourse in academic prose: A contrastive study of academic articles written in English by English and Norwegian native speakers. Studies about Languages. Vol. 5, 60–67.

Boggel, S. (2009). Metadisocurse in Middle English and Early Modern English Religious Texts: A Corpus Based Study. Peter Lang.

Bunton, D. (1999). The use of higher level metatext in Ph.D theses. English for Specific Purposes. Vol. 18, 41–56.

Cavalieri, S. (2011). The role of metadiscourse in counsels’ questions. In L. Cheng (Ed.). Exploring Courtroom Discourse: The Language of Power and Control (pp. 79–110). Routledge.

Crismore, A. (1989). Talking With Readers: Metadiscourse As Rhetorical Act. Lang.

Dahl, T. (2004). Textual metadiscourse in research articles: A marker of national culture or of academic discipline? Journal of Pragmatics. Vol. 36, 1807–1825.

Errihani, M. (2011). Managing religious discourse in the mosque: the end of extremist rhetoric during the Friday sermon. The Journal of North African Studies. Vol. 16(3), 381–394.

Garcia, J. F. C. & Marco, M. J. L. (1998). A genre-based study of laboratory demonstrations. Genre Studies in English for Academic Purposes. Vol. 1, 271–296.

Hashem, M. (2010). The ummah in the khutba: A religious sermon or a civil discourse? Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. Vol. 30(1), 49–61.

Hidayat, D. R. (1999). Pemakaian Bahasa Indonesia Ragam Lisan oleh Para Khotib di Kotamadya Bandung; Studi Deskriptif Terhadap Ragam dan Fungsi Bahasa. Bandung: Program Pascasarjana Universitas

Pendidikan Indonesia.

Hyland, K. (1998). Persuasion and context: The pragmatics of academic metadiscourse. Journal of Pragmatics. Vol. 30, 437–455.

Hyland, K. (2005). Metadiscourse: Exploring Interaction in Writing. London: Continuum.

Hyland, K. (2017). Metadiscourse: What is it and where is it going? Journal of Pragmatics. Vol. 113, 16–29.

Hyland, K. & Tse, P. (2004). Metadiscourse in academic writing: A reappraisal. Applied Linguistics. Vol. 25(2), 156–177.

Junqueira, L. & Cortes, V. (2014). Metadiscourse in book reviews in English and Brazilian Portuguese : A corpus-based analysis. Rhetoric, Professional Communication, and Globalization. Vol. 6(1), 88-109.

Khader, M. J. (2017). The principles and required elements of the official Friday Sermon " Khotbat Al-Jumu'a' in Islam. Presented at Sermon Studies Conference. A Conference at Marshall University, October.

Khedri, M. (2014). A cross-disciplinary exploration of metadiscourse in experimental research articles. Unpublished PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.

Khedri, M., Ebrahimi, S. J. & Heng, C. S. (2013). Interactional metadiscourse markers in academic research article result and discussion sections. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature. Vol. 19(1).

Kim, E. Y. J. (2016). Persuasive strategies in a chauvinistic religious discourse: The case of women’s ordination. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines. Vol. 8(1), 58–83.

Kohnen, T. (2010). Religious discourse in Andreas H. Jucker, Irma Taavitsainen. Historical Pragmatics. 379–417.

Kuhi, D. & Mojood, M. (2014). Metadiscourse in newspaper genre: A cross-linguistic study of English and Persian editorials. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 98, 1046-1055.

Loan, N. T. T. (2018). Rhetorical structures and linguistic features of English abstracts in Thai Rajabhat University Journals. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature. Vol. 24(4), 71-84.

Lee, J. J. & Subtirelu, N. C. (2015). Metadiscourse in the classroom: A comparative analysis of EAP lessons and university lectures. English for Specific Purposes. Vol. 37(1), 52–62.

Liddicoat, A. J. (2014). Language Approaches in the Public Practice of Religion. Paper presented at International Conference on Language and Religion. A Conference at the Research Centre for Languages and Cultures University of South Australia.

Malmström, H. (2016). Engaging the congregation: The place of metadiscourse in contemporary preaching. Applied Linguistics. Vol. 37(4), 561–582.

Mauranen, A. (2010). Discourse reflexivity: a discourse universal? The case of ELF. Nordic Journal of English Studies. Vol. 9(2), 13–40.

Onay, A. (2004). Content analysis of Friday sermons-DIB* sermons in the year 1999. İslami Araştırmalar Dergisi. Vol. 17(1), 1-13.

O’Sullivan, J. (2011, November 22). If You Hate the West, Emigrate to a Muslim Country. The Guardian.

Saddhono, K. (2012). The discourse of Friday sermon in Surakarta A socio-pragmatic study. Wacana. Vol. 14(1), 145–153.

Saddhono, K., Eko Wardani, N., Ulya, C. & Muflikh Raharjo, Y. (2016). The structure of Friday sermon in Indonesia: A socipragmatic studies. Prosiding Prasasti. 420–426.

Samuri, Mohd Al Adib & Hopkins, P. (2017). Voices of Islamic authorities: Friday khutba in Malaysian mosques. Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations. Vol. 28(1), 47–67.

Schleifer, Abdallah (2017). Nouman Ali Khan Preachers and Spiritual Guides. The Muslim 500: The world’s 500 most influential Muslims, 110. Amman, Jordan: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre.

Sharif, A. (2015). Persuasive discourse in selected cermonial speeches by Mother Teresa. Published PhD thesis, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.

Soepriatmadji, L. (2009). Genre analysis on Englsih Friday sermons prepared by the Islamic religious council of Singapore. Jurnal Ilmiah Dinamika Bahasa Dan Budaya. Vol. 3(2), 171–184.

Tayob, A. (1999). Islam in South Africa Mosques, Imams, and Sermons. Gainesville: University Press of Florida Gainesville.

Vande Kopple, W. (1985). Some exploratory discourse on metadiscourse”. College Composition and Communication. Vol. 36, 82–93.

Williams, J. (1981). Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace. Glenview, Illinois: Scott: Foresman and Company.

Wuthnow, R. (1992). Rediscovering the Sacred: Perspectives on Religion in Contemporary Society. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.

Yazdani, A. & Hadi Salehi. (2016). Metadiscourse markers of online texts: English and persian online headlines use of metadiscourse markers. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies. Vol. 4(3), 41–46.

Yipei, N. & Lingling, L. (2013). Investigating the interpersonal and textual meanings of Steve Jobs Stanford speech in terms of Hyland’s metadiscourse theory. International Journal of Language and Linguistics.

Vol. 1(4), 90–96.

Zhang, M., Sun, W., Peng, H., Gan, Q. & Yu, B. (2017). A multidimensional analysis of metadiscourse markers across spoken registers. Journal of Pragmatics. Vol. 117, 106–118.



  • There are currently no refbacks.




eISSN : 2550-2247

ISSN : 0128-5157