A Model for Understanding SMEs Internationalization in Emerging Economies

Zizah Che Senik, Rosmah Mat Isa, Ridzuan Md Sham, Abu H. Ayob

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Understanding the internationalization process of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is imperative for emerging economies to compete globally. Empirical findings of SMEs from emerging countries are still lacking. Thus, this study intends to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive model for the process of SMEs internationalization in Malaysia. Five major internationalization perspectives namely process and stage models, network, born-global and international new ventures, resource-based view, and international entrepreneurship were integrated in formulating a framework for this study. In-depth interviews were carried out with thirty-two Malaysian experts including academics, policy makers, government agencies, chamber of commerce, and research institute. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed manually using thematic coding and frequency counts analysis. Six important factors with distinguished categories and items pertaining to SME internationalization process were identified: 1) triggering factors; 2) internal factors; 3) external factors; 4) networking; 5) barriers and challenges, and 6) operations for internationalization. The main contribution of this study is a generic model of SME internationalization that can provide apertures on researching into SME internationalization in emerging economies.

Keywords: SMEs internationalization; international entrepreneurship; internationalization factors; internationalization process; emerging economies; Malaysia

ABSTRAK

Memahami proses pengantarabangsaan enterpris kecil sederhana (EKS) adalah penting bagi ekonomi baru muncul untuk bersaing di peringkat global. Penemuan kajian empirikal berkaitan pengantarabangsaan EKS dari ekonomi baru muncul masih amat kurang diterokai. Oleh itu, kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengisi jurang ini melalui pembentukan satu model komprehensif yang merangkumi gabungan pelbagai faktor melibatkan proses pengantarabangsaan EKS di Malaysia. Lima perspektif pengantarabangsaan utama iaitu “process and stage models, network, born-global dan international new ventures, resource-based view, dan international entrepreneurship” telah diintegrasikan dalam membentuk rangka kerja untuk kajian ini. Kaedah temu bual telah dijalankan dengan tiga-puluh dua pakar di Malaysia yang melibatkan respondan dari kalangan ahli akademik, pembuat dasar, agensi kerajaan, dewan perniagaan, dan institusi penyelidikan. Temubual telah ditranskrip dan dianalisis secara manual menggunakan pengekodan tematik dan analisis kiraan frekuensi. Enam faktor penting beserta dengan kategori dan item berkaitan dengan proses pengantarabangsaan EKS telah dikenal pasti iaitu: 1) faktor pencetus; 2) faktor dalaman; 3) faktor luaran; 4) jaringan; 5) halangan dan cabaran, dan 6) operasi untuk pengantarabangsaan. Sumbangan utama kajian ini adalah satu model generik proses pengantarabangsaan EKS yang dijangka mampu memberi ruang baharu dalam penyelidikan berkenaan pengantarabangsaan EKS bagi ekonomi baru muncul.

Kata kunci: Pengantarabangsaan EKS; keusahawanan antarabangsa; faktor pengantarabangsaan; proses pengantarabangsaan; ekonomi baru muncul; Malaysia


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