How Does Transformative Social Service Develop?

Nur Sa’adah Muhamad, Khairul Akmaliah Adham, Mohmad Adnan Alias, Khairul Anuar Mohd Ali

Abstract


ABSTRACT
How does social innovation, in the form of transformative social service, develop within a social organization? In this study, we define social innovations as new ideas that are aimed at meeting social goals, which are typically diffused and mobilized by social organizations through their social services. Although there are a number of established social organizations in Malaysia, little is known about how their services have evolved or are diffused, particularly those that are transformative in nature. This lack of understanding can lead to ineffectiveness of social innovation implementation and might compromise the achievement of the intended social purpose. Using the integrated perspectives of process theories of service development, service innovation and firm development, as well as the concept of transformative service, this qualitative historical-processual case study explained the development of transformative services of Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA) (translated as the Council of Trust for the People), a prominent Malaysian social organization, from its inception in 1965 until present. Data were collected through in-depth interviews of key people of MARA as well as through analyses of published documents. The study found that MARA’s three foundational services of entrepreneurship development, education and investment have evolved over time in stages, together with the development of MARA as an organization. The services were developed based on the blueprints set out by MARA and the national policy since the early days. These findings establish the link between the concept of innovation and service development to social firms development, and thus overcome some managerial and policy issues of promoting effective management and institutionalization of social organizations.

Keywords: Social organization; social service; social innovation; social entrepreneurship; transformative service; strategic management; Majlis Amanah Rakyat.

ABSTRAK

Bagaimanakah inovasi sosial, dalam bentuk perkhidmatan sosial yang transformatif, dibangunkan dalam sesebuah organisasi sosial? Dalam kajian ini, kami mentakrifkan inovasi sosial sebagai idea baru yang bertujuan untuk mencapai suatu matlamat sosial, yang lazimnya disebar luas dan digerakkan oleh organisasi sosial melalui perkhidmatan sosialnya. Meskipun terdapat banyak organisasi sosial di Malaysia, umum masih kurang mengetahui tentang bagaimana perkhidmatannya berkembang atau dibangunkan, terutamanya yang bersifat transformatif. Kelompongan dalam asas teori dan pengetahuan ini boleh membawa kepada masalah pelaksanaan inovasi sosial, malah mungkin menggagalkan matlamat sosial yang ingin dicapai. Dengan menggunakan perspektif bersepadu teori-teori proses pembangunan perkhidmatan, inovasi perkhidmatan dan pembangunan organisasi, serta konsep perkhidmatan transformatif, kajian kes kualitatif yang mengambil pendekatan prosesual-sejarah ini menyoroti evolusi pembangunan perkhidmatan yang transformatif oleh Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA), sebuah organisasi sosial Malaysia yang terkemuka, bermula dari penubuhannya pada 1965 sehingga kini. Data dikutip melalui temu bual mendalam dengan wakil-wakil pengurusan tertinggi MARA serta melalui analisis dokumen. Kajian mendapati terdapat tiga jenis perkhidmatan utama yang ditawarkan oleh MARA, iaitu pembangunan keusahawanan, pendidikan dan pelaburan. Perkhidmatan-perkhidmatan ini berevolusi secara berperingkat dan berkait rapat dengan pembangunan MARA sendiri sebagai sebuah organisasi, serta dibangunkan berdasarkan rangka tindakan yang berpaksikan dasar negara dan dasar penubuhan MARA sejak awal lagi. Penemuan ini memberikan perkaitan yang jelas antara konsep inovasi dan perkembangan perkhidmatan dengan pembangunan organisasi sosial, justeru dapat membantu pihak pengurusan berkaitan serta penggubalan polisi dalam meningkatkan kecekapan pengurusan dan penginstitusian organisasi sosial yang transfomatif.

Kata kunci: Organisasi sosial; perkhidmatan sosial; inovasi sosial; keusahawanan sosial; perkhidmatan transformatif;; Majlis Amanah Rakyat.


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