An Investigation of International and Domestic Tourists' Satisfaction in Heritage Context: Implications for Destination Marketing

Norzalita Abd Aziz, Ahmad Azmi M. Ariffin, Nor Asiah Omar, Kim Yoon Siow

Abstract


ABSTRACT
The marketing of heritage coincides with the emergence of marketing as an academic discipline in the 1950s. This
research seeks to determine domestic and international tourists’ expectations and perceptions of the heritage site of
Melaka in Malaysia by measuring their satisfaction level using eight travel attributes. This study examines the overall
satisfaction among international and domestic tourists who visited Melaka using a conceptual model that combines
the concepts of the Expectancy Disconfirmation Paradigm and Service Quality framework. A sample of 322 respondents
was surveyed with a structured questionnaire. A series of analyses were performed on both domestic and international
tourists groups. It is important to understand that the R-square value obtained in the perception-only or perceived
performance model is higher compared to Expectancy Disconfirmation Paradigm approach in determining tourists’
satisfaction. By using the perceptions-only model for predicting overall satisfaction, the results showed that there are two factors namely ‘Attractions’ and ‘Climate & Image’ that appealed to international and domestic tourists. Theoretical,
managerial and marketing implications of tourists’ satisfaction in visiting heritage sites are discussed.

ABSTRAK


Pemasaran pelancongan warisan telah berkembang secara serentak dengan kewujudan pemasaran sebagai salah
satu dispilin akademik. Kajian ini ingin mengenal pasti jangkaan dan juga tanggapan pelancong domestik dan
antarabangsa terhadap pelancongan warisan di Melaka, Malaysia. Pengukuran tahap kepuasan pelancong dengan
menganalisis lapan atribut penting untuk tujuan melancong ke sesebuah destinasi warisan telah diguna pakai.
Kajian ini mengenal pasti tahap kepuasan keseluruhan pelancong yang melawat Melaka dangan menggunakan
konsep ‘Expectancy Disconfirmation Paradigm’ dan juga rangka kerja kualiti perkhidmatan. Jumlah sampel yang
digunakan dalam kaji selidik ini adalah sebanyak 322 responden dengan menggunakan soal selidik berstruktur.
Analisis kajian mendapati nilai R-kuasa dua yang diperolehi daripada model persepsi atau prestasi tanggapan
adalah lebih tinggi daripada pendekatan ‘Expectancy Disconfirmation Paradigm’. Dengan menggunakan model
persepsi sahaja, kajian mendapati terdapat dua faktor utama iaitu ‘Attractions’ dan ‘Climate & Image’ yang penting
bagi pelancong domestik dan juga antarabangsa yang dapat memberikan kepuasan. Implikasi teoretikal, pengurusan
dan juga pemasaran terhadap kepuasan pelancong juga dibincangkan.


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