Strategi dan Corak Pengantarabangsaan Perniagaan Agro di Malaysia

Zizah Che Senik, Rosmah Mat Isa, Ridzuan Md Sham, Ratana Jabir

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Artikel ini mengkaji pendekatan strategi pengantarabangsaan yang diambil oleh perusahaan kecil dan sederhana (PKS) agro. Objektif kajian ini ialah mengenalpasti strategi kemasukan dan pemilihan pasaran oleh syarikat PKS agro, dan mengetahui bagaimana ciri-ciri syarikat mempengaruhi kepantasan proses pengantarabangsaan. Kajian kes digunakan keatas lima syarikat PKS agro di Malaysia. Kajian mendapati syarikat PKS agro menggunakan pelbagai strategi mod kemasukan seperti eksport langsung, usahasama, dan rakan kongsi asing untuk menembusi pasaran antarabangsa. Kajian membuktikan ciri-ciri syarikat seperti jenis produk, jenis perniagaan, dan pemilikan merupakan faktor utama yang mempengaruhi strategi mod kemasukan asing dan sasaran pasaran, yang kemudiannya menentukan corak pengantarabangsaan, samada tradisional ataupun born-global. Artikel ini mencadangkan satu tipologi corak pengantarabangsaan dan beberapa proposisi berkaitan dengan proses pengantarabangsaan. Kajian ini memberi panduan kepada pemilik/pengurus perniagaan industri agro untuk menembusi pasaran global. Manakala bagi penggubal dasar pula ianya boleh menjadi asas untuk membentuk garis panduan dalam membantu industri perniagaan agro bersaing di peringkat antarabangsa.

Kata kunci: Proses pengantarabangsaan; industri perniagaan agro; strategi mod kemasukan; corak pengantarabangsaan; negara pasaran baru muncul

ABSTRACT

This article examines the internationalization strategy among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in agro industry. The objectives of this study are to identify the entry mode and market selection strategies in the internationalization of agro SMEs, and to determine how the company’s characteristics affecting the speed of internationalization process. The case study was adopted involving five agro SMEs in Malaysia. The study found that agro SME companies utilised a variety of entry mode strategies such as direct export, joint ventures, and foreign partners to penetrate into international market. The study identified that the characteristics of the company such as types of product, types of business, and ownership are major factors affecting the choice of foreign entry mode and markets selection, which in turn determines the pattern of internationalization that can be either traditional or born-global. This article proposes a typology of internationalization pattern and several propositions regarding the internationalization process. This study provides guidance to owners/managers of agro businesses to penetrate into global market. Whereas for the policy makers, it could be the basis for establishing guidelines in helping agribusiness industry to compete internationally.

Keywords: Internationalization process; agro business industry; the entry mode strategy; pattern internationalization; emerging countries


Keywords


Proses pengantarabangsaan; industri perniagaan agro; strategi mod kemasukan; corak pengantarabangsaan; negara pasaran baru muncul

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