Supervisory Communication and Employees’ Job Satisfaction in the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

Mohd Nazri Ibrahim, Zaridah Abdullah, Md Azalanshah Md Syed, Muhammad Amanullah Yatim

Abstract


Supervisory communication has been determined as a strong factor in predicting organizational environment. Even though it is not clearly outlined, supervisory function serves as a big determining factor in job satisfaction. Despite the fundamental idea that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute to the development of the nation, there is still a huge gap on how organizational communication works particularly in relation to how well the small numbers of employees in SMEs could interact with their supervisors. This study examines the relationship between supervisory communication and job satisfaction among SMEs’ employees in Klang Valley, Malaysia. It was hypothesized that supervision is a determining factor to job satisfaction due to the fact that the relationship between supervisors and subordinates in the workplace is essential. Secondly, supervisory communication is imperative as it is important to influence subordinates’ job satisfaction. 184 respondents were selected randomly from SMEs’ directory for this research. The study found that there is a moderately strong relationship between supervisory communication and job satisfaction among employees in the industry. Specifically, supervisory communication explained 39.5% of the communication satisfaction variance. Therefore, supervisory communication significantly predicted job satisfaction in the industry. This study underlines the importance of supervisory communication towards job satisfaction and predicted that it will finally contribute to the future development of the industry.

 

Keywords: Supervisory communication, job satisfaction, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), employees, supervisor, subordinates.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Amat Senin Aslan, Muhammad Zeeshan Shaukat, Ishfaq Ahmed, Ishak Mad Shah, & Mastura Mahfar. (2014). Job satisfaction of academics in Malaysian public universities. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 114, 154-158.

Asma Abdullah. (1992). Influence of ethnic values at the Malaysian workforce. In Asma Abdullah Ed), Understanding the Malaysian workforce: Guidelines for managers (pp. 1-17). Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Institute of Management.

Andrews, M. C., & Kacmar, K. M. (2001). Confirmation and extension of the sources of feedback scale in service-based organizations. Journal of Business Communication, 38(2), 206-260.

Bartlett, C. (2000). Supervisory communication and subordinate job satisfaction: The relationship between superiors' self-disclosure, offers of help, offers of cooperation, frequency of contact, trust and subordinates' job satisfaction. Public Library Quarterly, 18(1), 9-30.

BERNAMA. (2015, October 24). Budget 2016 positive for SMEs with RM9.5 billion allocation. BERNAMA.com. Retrieved from http:// www.bernama.com

Che Su, Hassan Abu Bakar, & Bahtiar Mohamad. (2009). The supervisory communication-commitment to workgroup model: Example of a Malaysian Organization. Intercultural Communication Studies, XVIII(1), 206-220.

Chiun Lo, M., & Ramayah, T. (2011). Mentoring and job satisfaction in Malaysian SMEs. Management Development, 30(4), 427-440.

Churchill, G. A., Ford, N. M., & Walker, O. C. (1974). Measuring the job satisfaction of industrial salesman. Journal of Marketing Research, 11(3), 254-60.

Cunningham, L. (2010). Job satisfaction and values of counselors in private practice and agency settings (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida).

Dalrymple, J. F. (2004). Performance measurement for SME growth. A business profile benchmarking approach. Second World Conference on POM and 15th Annual POM Conference, Cancun, Mexico, 20.

Dainton, M., & Zelley, E. D. (2011). Applying communication theory for professional life: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). California: Sage.

Dansereau, F., Graen, G., & Haga, W. J. (1975). A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13(1), 46-78.

Dulebohn, J. H., Bommer, W. H., Liden, R. C., Brouer, R. L., & Ferris, G. R. (2012). A meta-analysis of antecedents and consequences of leader-member exchange integrating the past with an eye toward the future. Journal of Management, 38(6), 1715-1759.

Fairhurst, G. T. (1993). The leader-member exchange patterns on women leaders in industry: A discourse analaysis. Communication Monographs, 60(4), 321-51.

Graen, G. B., & Scandura, T. A. (1987). Toward psychology of dyadic organizing. In S. B. M Cummings & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (pp. 175-208). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Graen, G. B., Wakabayashi, M., Graen, M. R., & Graen, M. G. (1990). International generalizability of American hypotheses about Japanese management progress: A strong inference investigation. Leadership Quality, 1(1), 1-23.

Graen, G. B., & Wakabayashi, M. (1994). Cross-cultural leadership making: Bridging American and Japanese diversity for team

advantage. In H. C., Triandis, M. D., Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organisational psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 415-46). New York: Consulting Psychology Press

Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219-247.

Gok, S., Karatuna, I., & Karaca, P. O. (2014). The role of perceived supervisor support and organizational identification in job satisfaction. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 177, 38-42.

Hatfield, J. D., & Huseman, R. C. (1982). Perceptual congruence about communication as related to satisfaction: Moderating effects of individual characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 25(2), 349-358

Jablin, F. M., & Krone, K. J. (1987). Organizational assimilation. In C. R. Berger & S. H. Chaffee (Eds.), Handbook of communication science (pp. 711–746). Newbury Park, CA: Sage

Jablin, F. (2001). Organizational entry, assimilation, and disengagement/exit. In Jablin, F. M., & Putnam, L. L. (Eds.), The new handbook of organizational communication (pp. 732-818). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organization (2nd ed). NY: Wiley

Kerr, G., Way, S. A., & Thacker, J. (2007). Performance, HR practices and the HR manager in small entrepreneurial firms. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 20(1), 55-68.

Krone, K. J. (1992). A comparison of organizational, structural, and relationship effects on subordinates’ upward influence choices. Communication Quarterly, 40(1), 1-15.

Liden, R. C., & Graen, G. B. (1980). Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage model of leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 23(3), 451-65.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Stilwell, D. (1993). A longitudinal study on the early development of leader-member exchanges. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 662-74.

Locke, E. A. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3(2), 157-189.

Maizatul Haizan Mahbob & Wan Idros Wan Sulaiman (2015). Kepentingan kecerdasan emosi dalam komunikasi keorganisasian dan pengaruhnya terhadap kepuasan kerja. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 31(2), 533-546.

McBride, E. L. (2002, September). Employee satisfaction: Code red in the workplace?. Paper presented at Seminars for Nurse Managers (Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 157-163).

Miles, E. W., Patrick, S. L., & King, W. C. (1996). Job level as a systemic variable in predicting the relationship between supervisory communication and job satisfaction. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 69(3), 277-292.

Mohamad Said Awang, & Zulhamri Abdullah (2012). Hubungan antara pertimbangan pemimpin, pertukaran organisasi dan komitmen organisasi. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 28(1), 121-136.

Mohd Khairuddin Hashim. (2011). Managing small and medium-sized enterprises: The Malaysian perspective. Sintok, Kedah: UUM Press.

Motowidlo, S. J. (1996). Orientation toward the job and organization.Individual differences and behavior in organizations. In K. R. Murphy (Ed.), Individual differences and behavior in organizations (pp. 175-208). San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.

Muhammad Wasim Jan Khan, & Muhammad Khalique. (2014). An overview of small and medium enterprises in Malaysia and Pakistan: Past, Present and future scenario. Business and Management Horizons, 2(2), 38-49.

Needle, D. (2010). Business in context: An introduction to business and its environment (5th ed.). Hampshire, United Kingdom: Cengage Learning.

Newstrom, J. W., & Davis, K. (2006). Organizational behaviour: Human behaviour at work. Irwin: Homewood.

Papa, M. J., Daniels. T. D., & Spiker, K. B. (2008). Organizational communication: Perspectives and trends. London: Sage.

Rahman Hashim. (2015). Levels of job satisfaction among engineers in a Malaysian local organization. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 175-181.

Ramirez, D. L. (2012). Organizational communication satisfaction and job satisfaction within university foodservice (Unpublished master’s thesis, Kansas State University).

Russell, S. S., Spitzmüller, C., Lin, L. F., Stanton, J. M., Smith, P. C., & Ironson, G. H. (2004). Shorter can also be better: The abridged job in general scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(5), 878-893

Saleh, A. S., Caputi, P., & Harvie, C. (2008). Perceptions of business challenges facing Malaysian SMEs: Some preliminary results. In M. Obayashi & N. Oguchi (Eds.), 5th SMEs in a Global Economy Conference 2008 (pp. 79-106). Tokyo, Japan: Senshu University.

Syed Abdul Rahman Syd Zin, & Mohamed Zin Nordin (2004). Persepsi stail komunikasi kepimpinan mempengaruhi kepuasan pegawai sokongan dalam jabatan kerajaan. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 20, 59-77.

Tsai, Y. (2011). Relationship between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction. BMC Health Services Research, 11(1), 98.

Van Vuuren, M., de Jong, M. D. T., & Seydel, E. R. (2006). Direct and indirect effects of supervisor communication on organizational commitment. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 12(2), 116-128.

Waldron, V. R. (1991). Achieving communication goals in superior-subordinate relationships: The multi-functionality of upward maintenance tactics. Communication Monographs, 58(3), 289-306.

Wan Idros Wan Sulaiman, & Maizatul Haizan Mahbob (2014). Kesignifikan model kepuasan komunikasi dalam konteks pengurusan maklumat sektor awam. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 30(1), 92-110.

Wan Idros Wan Sulaiman, & Maizatul Haizan Mahbob (2015). Hubungan komunikasi keorganisasian dengan perancangan strategik modal insan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 31(2), 1-14.

Wilkinson, A. D., & Wagner, R. M. (1993). Supervisory leadership styles and state vocational rehabilitation counsellor job satisfaction and productivity. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 37(1), 15-24.

Yrle, A. C., Hartman, S. J., & Galle, W. P. (2002). An investigation of relationship between communication style and leader-member exchange. Journal of Communication Management, 6(3), 257-69.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.