Laluan Sutera Baharu Maritim China dan Implikasi Polisi ke atas Komunikasi Strategik Asean

Muhamad Azwan Abd Rahman, Sity Daud, Abdul Rahman Embong

Abstract


One Belt One Road (OBOR), ataupun kini dikenali dengan Inisiatif Jalur dan Jalan (Belt and Road Initiative, BRI) merupakan peralihan strategi baharu China yang merangkumi dua bentuk kerjasama ekonomi iaitu daratan dan maritim. Idea yang diperkenalkan Presiden China Xi Jinping tahun 2013 ini cuba memanfaatkan sejarah Jalan Sutera Maritim Klasik termasuk di Asia Tenggara. Hubungan sejarah ini menyumbang kepada pembentukan  infrastruktur sosial yang membantu menguatkan hubungan ekonomi negara China serta mengukuhkan kerjasama infrastruktur fizikal dan perhubungan mega dengan negara-negara ASEAN. Perubahan strategi China menerusi projek Laluan Sutera Baharu Maritim ini telah  mendorong ASEAN secara kolektif berpendirian positif tetapi kebanyakan negara anggota menyambut projek ini dengan polisi masing-masing sebagai memperoleh manfaat besar daripada inisiatif BRI. Namun ada keraguan dalam kalangan masyarakat negara-negara ASEAN bahawa tindakan China ini merupakan salah satu rancangan perluasan pengaruh politik dan dominasi ekonomi China di Asia Tenggara. Artikel ini menghujahkan  bahawa projek Laluan Sutera Baharu Maritim yang digagaskan China bukan setakat menjadikan ASEAN sebagai hub maritim dunia tetapi turut mempunyai  implikasi tertentu khususnya dalam keperluan pembinaan polisi komunikasi strategik berbentuk inklusif untuk semua pihak yang berkerjasama. Artikel ini memfokus kepada huraian analisis ASEAN berdasarkan sumber primer dan sekunder yang diperolehi. Artikel ini menyimpulkan  bahawa ASEAN tidak mempunyai sebarang bentuk polisi yang komprehensif serta jawatankuasa khas yang boleh melindungi kepentingan negara anggota dan pertubuhan itu  dalam kerjasama dengan China, selain amalan dasar non-intereference yang perlu disemak semula bagi tujuan komunikasi strategik. Idea-idea dalam artikel  ini juga menyumbang kepada input polisi dalam batas-batas tertentu khususnya dalam kerjasama  ekonomi ASEAN-China.

 

Kata Kunci: ASEAN, Laluan Sutera Baharu Maritim China, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), infrastruktur sosial, komunikasi strategik.


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References


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