TRANSISI KEPIMPINAN DALAM ISLAM: ANALISIS TERHADAP CARA PEMILIHAN KHULAFA’ AL-RASYIDIN (Leadership Transition in Islam: Analysis of Caliphate al-Rasyidin Election System)

Indra Fauzan, Nidzam Sulaiman

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Kepimpinan merupakan satu kemestian dalam pemerintahan Islam, kerana kehadiran kepimpinan merupakan perintah agama terutamanya dalam konteks kekuasaan sama ada kekuasaan politik ataupun dibawahnya. Proses transisi kepimpinan dan kekuasaan dalam politik moden merupakan satu elemen yang sangat penting kerana ia menunjukkan ciri sistem politik sesebuah negara, sama ada berada dalam sistem berdemokrasi, monarki, sosialis dan sebagainya. Walau bagaimanapun, Islam sebagai sebuah agama yang mencakupi pelbagai aspek kehidupan secara khusus tidak memberikan satu pola khas dalam peralihan kepimpinan dan kekuasaan ini. Dalam kes kepimpinan masa Khulafa’ al-Rasyidin terlihat bahawa terdapat pelbagai mekanisma pemilihan pemimpin pengganti Rasulullah. Terpilihnya Abu Bakar, Umar Ibn Khattab, Uthman Ibn Affan dan Ali Ibn Abi Thalib adalah melalui mekanisme pemilihan yang berbeza satu sama lain sama ada ia dipilih melalui musyawarah, dipilih atau ditunjuk secara langsung. Model kepimpinan ini menunjukkan bahawa Islam memberi kebebasan dalam hal kepimpinan kepada mereka yang memiliki ciri-ciri yang diperlukan terutamanya dalam hal keimanan. Bukan sebarang tokoh boleh memilih pemimpin dan tidak semua individu boleh menjadi pemimpin kecuali mereka memiliki elemen ketokohan yang baik seperti keimanan, adil, cergas dan sebagainya. Makalah ini menerokai bagaimana peralihan kepimpinan dan kekuasaan dalam masa khulafa’ al-Rasyidin tersebut dan akan dibincang melalui analisa pemilihan dalam sistem politik. Kaedah kepustakaan merupakan kaedah yang diguna pakai untuk menerokai mekanisme pemilihan khalifah melalui pengutipan dokumen. Secara keseluruhan makalah ini diharap memberi satu sumbangan pemikiran yang signifikan terhadap konsep kepimpinan dan kekuasaan dalam politik Islam.

ABSTRACT

Leadership is essential in Islamic government, the presence of leadership is a religious order especially in the context of power either political or subordinate. In modern politics the process of transition of leadership and power is a very important element as it reflects the political system of a country, whether in the democratic, monarchical, socialist and so on. Islam as a religion that embraces all aspects of life however does not provide a specific pattern in this transition of leadership and power. In the case of the leadership of the Caliph al-Rashidin’s time it was apparent that there were various mechanisms for the election of the successor of the Prophet. Selected Abu Bakr, Umar Ibn Khattab, Uthman Ibn Affan and Ali Ibn Abi Talib through different voting mechanisms whether they were selected by deliberation, elected or directly represented. These leadership models show that Islam gives leadership freedom to those who have the qualities needed especially in matters of faith. Not any person can choose a leader and not everyone can be the leader except those who have good leadership elements like faith, justice, fitness and so on. This article explores how the transition of leadership and power during the archeological caliphate and will be discussed through electoral analysis in the political system. Library methods are a widely used method of exploring caliphate selection mechanisms through document collection. Overall this article hopes to contribute a significant amount of thought to the concept of leadership and power in Islamic politics.


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