A Glimpse at Women Entrepreneurs in Penang (Satu Tinjauan kepada Usahawan Wanita di Pulau Pinang)

Zarina Md Nor, Zuraidah Ramli

Abstract


Women entrepreneurship is a force to be reckoned with. Women in business are commonly found all over the country and they help to create vibrant economic activities in domestic arena. This study focuses on the characteristics of 50 women entrepreneurs in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Among others, we find that many of them are stay-at-home married women with children. Therefore, they have to juggle and find balance between family life and their business. It is interesting to note that 84 percent come from families with entrepreneurial experiences. Therefore, it is fair to say that this kind of exposure has cultivated interest among these women to become entrepreneurs themselves. Further, family support has been one of the important factors that encourage these women to venture into businesses. However, despite their involvement in business, 50 percent of our respondents have not attended any training and courses on entrepreneurship. It seems that they rely more on advices from family members on issues related to their business compared to formal or government institutions. This is probably due to their reliance on personal savings and family sources of capital in embarking into the businesses such that institutional involvement is minimal in charting the direction of their businesses though they are aware of various kinds of financial assistance provided by the government. Hence, even in a smaller scale, women entrepreneurs are increasingly creating wealth for the nation while simultaneously caring for their families.

Keywords: Women entrepreneurs; entrepreneurship; business; Malaysia; Penang

 

ABSTRAK

Keusahawanan wanita adalah satu daya usaha yang tidak dapat dinafikan lagi. Wanita yang terlibat dalam pelbagai jenis perniagaan terdapat di seluruh negara dan mereka turut menyumbang dalam memeriahkan aktiviti ekonomi domestik. Kajian ini bertumpu kepada 50 orang usahawan wanita di negeri Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Ramai di antara mereka adalah surirumah yang mempunyai anak. Oleh kerana itu mereka juga perlu membahagikan masa antara tanggungjawab rumahtangga dan perniagaan yang dijalankan. Perlu ditekankan juga bahawa 84 peratus daripada responden datang dari keluarga yang terlibat dalam bidang perniagaan. Oleh kerana itu boleh dikatakan bahawa latarbelakang keluarga ini memainkan peranan dalam menimbulkan minat mereka untuk turut terlibat dalam bidang keusahawanan. Selain itu, sokongan keluarga terdekat juga menjadi pendorong utama mereka. Walau bagaimanapun, didapati bahawa 50 peratus daripada responden tidak menghadiri sebarang kursus atau latihan berkaitan perniagaan. Mereka mungkin lebih bergantung kepada nasihat ahli keluarga berbanding institusi kerajaan yang disediakan. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan oleh faktor modal perniagaan yang diambil daripada simpanan sendiri ataupun ahli keluarga, maka dengan itu mereka tidak terikat dengan syarat dan peraturan institusi atau agensi tertentu dalam menentukan arah tuju perniagaan mereka. Namun begitu, kebanyakan daripada mereka mengetahui tentang bantuan kewangan yang disediakan oleh kerajaan. Oleh itu, walau dalam skala yang kecil usahawan wanita tetap menyumbang dalam mencipta kekayaan negara, dan pada masa yang sama tanggungjawab terhadap keluarga tetap dilaksanakan.

Kata kunci: Usahawan wanita; usahawan; perniagaan; Malaysia; Pulau Pinang


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