An Optimality Analysis of Malay Loanwords in Japanese (Analisis Optimaliti Kata Pinjaman Bahasa Melayu dalam Bahasa Jepun)

Aznur Aisyah, Zaharani Ahmad

Abstract


ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine and explain the phonology of Malay loanwords in Japanese using Optimality Theory. The analysis was based on secondary data extracted from the Senyum magazine published in Malaysia that utilises Japanese language in its writing. The relevant data which was selected manually, was then analysed and explained using a constraints-based approach of Optimality Theory. This article focuses on vowel lengthening and epenthesis repair strategies that occur during the borrowing process from Malay to Japanese. The vowel lengthening repair strategy followed by vowel epenthesis are evoked from the syllable structure of Japanese, particularly the coda condition. The word that ends with /CVC/ (Consonant+ar/or/ur) will be changed to /CV:CV/ (Consonant+ a:ɾɯ/ o:ɾɯ/ ɯ:ɾɯ). This kind of loanword adaptation process will undergo vowel lengthening and the coda consonant will resyllabified as an onset of the following syllable. This study has suggested a set of markedness and faithfulness constraints that are hierarchically ranked in the grammar. The interaction between the constraints has successfully been accounted for the phonology of loanword adaptation in Japanese. The increase in the number of Japanese in Malaysia since the implementation of Malaysia My Second Home programme has led to a wider exposure of Malay words to the Japanese. Therefore, this research will not only benefit linguists, it will also enhance the Malaysian society’s understanding of Japanese pronunciation as it differs from the Malay phonology. It will help to eliminate the confusion that may occur during conversation between Japanese and Malays and vice versa.

Keywords:  Japanese phonology, optimality theory, Malay phonology, loanword, coda condition

 

ABSTRAK

 

Kajian ini bertujuan menghuraikan dan menjelaskan fenomena perubahan fonologi yang berlaku dalam kata pinjaman bahasa Melayu yang diserap masuk ke dalam bahasa Jepun menggunakan kerangka Teori Optimaliti. Sumber kajian ini merupakan data sekunder dari majalah Senyum yang diterbitkan di Malaysia dalam bahasa Jepun. Data yang relevan telah dipilih secara manual dan kemudian dianalisis dan diterangkan berdasarkan pendekatan kekangan dalam teori Optimaliti. Kertas kerja ini memfokuskan mengenai fenomena pemanjangan vokal dan penyisipan yang berlaku semasa proses peminjaman kata bahasa Melayu ke dalam Bahasa Jepun akibat daripada kekangan struktur suku kata khususnya syarat koda. Kata yang diakhiri dengan struktur suku kata /KVK/ (Konsonan+ar/or/ur) akan berubah menjadi /KV:KV/  (Konsonan+ a:ɾɯ/ o:ɾɯ/ ɯ:ɾɯ). Strategi perubahan fonologi ini melibatkan pemanjangan vokal dan konsonan yang berada di posisi koda pula melalui penyukuan semula dengan menjadi onset serta diikuti dengan penyisipan vokal. Kajian ini telah mencadangkan susunan set kekangan kebertandaan dan kesetiaan bagi setiap kes yang dibincangkan. Interaksi antara kekangan-kekangan ini berjaya menangani dan menjelaskan fenomena perubahan fonologi yang berlaku secara teoretis. Peningkatan jumlah masyarakat Jepun di Malaysia sejak program Malaysia My Second Home dilancarkan telah menjadikan orang Jepun lebih terdedah kepada perkataan dalam bahasa Melayu. Oleh yang demikian, kajian ini bukan sahaja memberi manfaat kepada ahli linguistik, tetapi juga kepada masyarakat Malaysia untuk memahami sebutan bahasa Jepun yang didapati berbeza daripada fonologi bahasa Melayu, dan ini dapat mengelakkan daripada berlakunya kekeliruan semasa berkomunikasi diantara orang Melayu dan orang Jepun dan sebaliknya.

 

Kata kunci: Fonologi bahasa Jepun; teori optimaliti; fonologi bahasa Melayu; kata pinjaman; syarat koda 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Asmah Haji Omar. 2008. Ensiklopedia Bahasa Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka

Campbell. L. 2004. Historical Linguistics: An introduction. 2nd Edition. Edinburgh:

Edinburgh University Press.

Dupoux. E, Kazuhiko. K, Yuki. H, Christophe. P, Stanka. F. & Jacques. M. 1999. Epenthetic vowels in Japanese: a perceptual illusion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 25(6):1568-1578.

Ito, J. 1986. Syllable Theory in Prosodic Phonology. Ph.D Thesis. University of Massachusetts.

Ito, J. 1990. Prosodic minimality in Japanese. In CLS 26-II: Papers from the Parasession on the Syllable in Phonetics and Phonology Syllable in Phonetics and Phonology edited by Deaton K., Noske M., & Ziolkowski M., 213-239. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Itô, J & Mester, A. 1993. Japanese phonology: constraint domains and structure preservation.

In The handbook of phonological theory, edited by Goldsmith J, 817-838. Malden: Blackwell Publisher.

Ito, J. & Mester, A. 2013. Prosodic subcategories in Japanese. Lingua 124(1): 20-40.

Kawahara, S. 2015. The phonology of Japanese accent. In The Handbook of Japanese Language and Linguistics: Phonetics and Phonology, edited by Kubozono H., 445-492. Germany: De Gruyter Mouton.

Kawatani, T. & Ahmad Ikram Haji Abdullah. 1996. Communication Handbook for Malaysian and Japanese Managers. 55-63. Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Japan Studies at ISIS Malaysia.

Kubozono, H. 2006. Where does loanword prosody come from?: A case study of Japanese loanword accent. Lingua 116(7): 1140-1170.

LaCharité, D. & Paradis, C. 2005. Category preservation and proximity versus phonetic approximation in loanword adaptation. Linguistic Inquiry 36(2): 223-258.

McCarthy, J. J. & Prince, A. 1993.Generalized Allignment. In Yearbook of Morphology, edited by Booij G, van Marle J. 79-153. Netherlands: Springer.

McCarthy, J. J., & Prince, A. 1994. The emergence of the unmarked: Optimality in prosodic morphology. Proceeding of NELS (North East Linguistics Society) 24:333-379.

McCarthy, J. J., & Prince, A. 2004. Faithfulness and Identity. In Optimality Theory in Phonology, edited by John. J. McCarthy, 88-90. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

Monbukagakusho. 2016. Gairaigo no hyouki (Japanese Loanword Representation).

http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/nc/t19910207001/t19910207001.html.

Retrieved on: April 2016.

Paradis, C, LaChariete, D. & Lebel, C. 1995. Saving and Cost in Loanword Adaptation: Predictions of the TCRS-Phonological Model. McGill Working Papers in Linguistics, 11: 46-84.

Perperkamp, S. & Dupoux, E. 2003. Reinterpreting loanword adaptations: The role of perception. In Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences:

-370.

Prince, A. & Smolensky, P. 1993. Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative

Grammar. Computer Science Technical Reports Paper 664 CU-CS-696-93. Rutgers University, New Brunswick and University of Colorado, Boulder. http://scholar.colorado.edu/csci_techreports/664 Retrieved on: 20 March 2016.

Prince, Alan M. and Paul Smolensky. 2004. Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. In Optimality Theory in Phonology edited by John. J. McCarthy, 80-92. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

Shibatani, M. 1990. The languages of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shinohara, S. 2000. Default accentuation and foot structure in Japanese: Evidence from Japanese adaptations of French words. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 9(1): 55-96.

Shinohara, S. 2004. Emergence of universal grammar in foreign word adaptations. In Constraints in Phonological Acquisition, edited by R. Kager, J. Pater, & W. Zonneveld. 292-320. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shoji, S., & Shoji, K. 2014. Vowel epenthesis and consonant deletion in Japanese loanwords

from English. In Proceedings of the Annual Meetings on Phonology 1(1): 1-12.

Shudong, W., Higgins, M., & Shima, Y. 2005. Teaching English pronunciation for Japanese learners of English online. JALT CALL Journal 1(1): 39-47.

Siti Hamin Stapa, Talaibek, M., Hieda, N. & Normalis Amzah. 2013. Issues of language choice, ethics and equity: Japanese retirees living in Malaysia as their second home. Language and Intercultural Communication 13(1): 60-77.

Smith, J. L. 2006. Loan phonology is not all perception: Evidence from Japanese loan doublets. Japanese/Korean Linguistics 14: 63-74.

Vance, T. J. 2008. The sounds of Japanese with audio CD. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 54-69

Weinreich, U. 1979. Languages in contact: Findings and problems. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton Publisher.

Zaharani Ahmad. 1994. Proses alternasi morfem dan penentuan morfem dasar: beberapa persoalan teori. Akademika 44(1): 137-154.

Zaharani Ahmad. 2004: Alignment and the syllable coda condition in Malay: An optimality

Account. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies 4(2): 1-32


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.