Linguistic Features of Malaysian Students’ Online Communicative Language in an Academic Setting: The Case of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Ciri-Ciri Linguistik Bahasa Komunikasi atas Talian Pelajar Malaysia dalam Suasana Akademik: Kes Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia)

Fuzirah Hashim, Ahmad Aminuddin Soopar, Bahiyah Abdul Hamid

Abstract


Social media have gained astounding worldwide growth and popularity and have become prominent in the life of many young people today. According to various research studies in the field of online social networks, social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Whatsapp are greatly impacting the lives of youths. These sites have provided a platform whereby the young can create groups based on their common interests and build connections by updating various topics to discuss. However, with social media taking up such a large space in our lives, there is a concern as to whether it is impacting our communicative language; more importantly, our youth’s communicative language. In view of this phenomenon, this article is an attempt to add to the understanding of online communicative language used by youths in social media.  Specifically, it reports on the linguistic features of online communicative language used by youths in an academic setting in Facebook. This study employed two research tools, namely Virtual Ethnography and Content Analysis. Data collected was in the form of screen captures and snippets of conversations.  Content Analysis was employed to look into the occurrences of languages in contact in phenomena such as code mixing, code switching and borrowings of certain words from the first language-second language and vice versa. The findings of the study indicate that the language used by the participants on Facebook consists of a mixture of code switching, code mixing, fillers, emoticons, spelling modifications, foreign language words and colloquial Malaysian English. 

Keywords: Online communicative language; social networking space; Facebook; academic setting; linguistic features

 

Abstrak

Media sosial telah tumbuh dengan pesatnya di seluruh dunia dan popularitinya telah menyebabkan ia telah menjadi sebahagian daripada kehidupan anak muda masa kini.  Menurut pelbagai kajian penyelidikan di dalam bidang rangkaian sosial atas talian, laman media sosial seperti Facebook, Twitter dan Whatsapp begitu memberi impak kepada kehidupan golongan muda.  Laman-laman ini telah menyediakan satu platform di mana golongan belia boleh melibatkan diri dalam kumpulan yang mempunyai minat yang sama dari segi disiplin atau bidang dengan mengemaskini pelbagai topik untuk perbincangan atas talian.  Namun, disebabkan media sosial telah mengambil ruang yang besar dalam kehidupan kita, timbul kebimbangan mengenai impaknya terhadap bahasa komunikasi kita; terutamanya bahasa komunikasi belia kita.  Berdasarkan kepada fenomena ini, makalah ini merupakan satu usaha untuk menambahkan pemahaman bahasa komunikasi atas talian yang digunakan oleh belia di media sosial.  Secara khusus, makalah ini akan melaporkan tentang ciri-ciri linguistik bahasa komunikasi atas talian yang digunakan oleh belia dalam suasana akademik di Facebook. Kajian ini menggunakan dua kaedah penyelidikan, iaitu Etnografi Maya dan Analisis Kandungan. Data yang dikumpul adalah dalam bentuk tangkapan skrin dan coretan dalam perbualan. Analisis Kandungan digunakan untuk meneliti penggunaan bahasa dalam fenomena percampuran kod, penukaran kod dan pinjaman kata-kata tertentu daripada bahasa pertama-bahasa kedua dan sebaliknya.  Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa bahasa yang digunakan oleh para peserta di Facebook terdiri daripada campuran daripada penukaran kod, campuran kod, kata-kata pengisi, emotikon, pengubahsuaian ejaan, perkataan bahasa asing dan bahasa pasar Bahasa Inggeris.  

Kata kunci: Bahasa komunikasi atas talian; ruangan rangkaian sosial;     Facebook; persekitaran akademik; ciri-ciri linguistik

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adendorff, R. 1996. The Functions of code-switching among high school teachers and students in KwaZulu and implications to teacher education. In Voices from the language classroom: Qualitative research in second language education, edited by K. Biley and D. Ninan, 388-406. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Auer, P. (ed). 1998. Code-switching in conversation: Language, interaction and identity. London: Routledge.

Azhar M. Simin & Bahiyah Abdul Hamid. 1994. English in Malaysia: The Case of two myths. Proceedings of the International English Language Education Conference. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Bahiyah Abdul Hamid & Azhar M. Simin. 1995. English and speed in interactive decision-making: Wholly or unWholly Alliance? A Malayian Experience. In Explorations in English for professional communication, edited by P. Brauthiax, T. Boswood & D.B. Du Babcock, 175-185.

Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong.

Bahiyah Abdul Hamid. 2003. English-Bahasa Melayu code alternation, code choice and gender in decision-making in committee meeting at an institution of Higher learning. Unpublished PhD. Thesis. School of Language Studies and Linguistics. Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Bahiyah Abdul Hamid & Kesumawati Abu Bakar. 2012. Malaysian Youth Identities and Literacy Practices in Personal Advertisements: Implications to Education. In Language and Literacy in Multilingual Contexts, edited by Koo Yew Li and Hazita Azman, 51-78, Chapter 3. Bangi, Selangor: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Press.

Baron, N. S. 1998. Letters by Phone or Speech by Other Means: The Linguistics of Email. Language and Communication 18: 133-170.

Baron, S. N. 2008. Always on: Language in an Online and Mobile World. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cocozza, P. 2015. Crying with Laughter: How we Learned how to Speak Emoji. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/nov/ 17/crying- with- laughter-how-we-learned- how-to- speak- emoji/ Retrieved on: 28 May 2016.

Crystal, D. 2001. Language and the Internet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

David, M. K. 2000. Creativity in the Language of Malaysian Youth-An Exploratory Study. In

English is an Asian Language: The Malaysian Context, edited by Halimah Mohd Said and Ng Keat Siew, 64-72. Melbourne: Persatuan Bahasa Moden Malaysia Lib. Pty Ltd.

Derks, D., E.R. Bos, A., & Von Grumbkow, J. 2008. Emoticons in Computer-Mediated

Communication: Social Motives and Social Context. Cyber Psychology and Behavior

(1): 99-101.

Fairclough, N. 1995. Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Longman.

Ferrara, K., Brunner, H., & Whitmore, G. (1991). Interactive Written Discourse as an Emergent

Register. Written Communication 8(1): 8-34.

Ferreira Da Cruz, M.R.D. 2008. Intercultural cybercommunication: Negotiation of representations of languages and cultures in multilingual chatrooms. Journal of Multicultural Discourses 3: 98-113.

Fung, L. & Carter, R. 2007. Discourse Markers and Spoken English: Native and Learner Use in Pedagogic Settings. Applied Linguistics 28(3): 410-439.

Juan, S. 2006. "Why do we Say 'um', 'er', or 'ah' when we Hesitate in Speaking?"http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/05/06/the_odd_body_language_fillers/ Retrieved on: 29 May 2015.

Kirkpatrick, A. 2007. World Englishes: Implications for International Communication and

English Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Koziol, J.M. 2000. Code-switching between English and Spanish and English in Contemporary American Society. Unpublished Master Thesis. St. Mary’s College of Maryland, USA.

Kozinets, R.V. 2006. Netnography. In The Sage Directory of Social Science Research Methods, edited by V. Jupp, 193-195. London: Sage Publications.

Lowenberg, P.H. 1992. Language Transfer and Levels of Meaning Potential in Malaysian English. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics. San Jose, U.S.: Georgetown University.

Maynor, N. 1994. ‘The Language of Electronic Mail: Written speech?’ In Centennial Usage Studies, edited by G. D. Little & M. Montgomery, 48-54. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP.

Norizah Hassan & Azirah Hashim. 2009. Electronic English in Malaysia: Features and Language in Use. English Today 25(4): 39-46.

Nur Nasliza Arina Mohamad Nasir & Jamilah Ahmad. 2015. Facebook and Mass Media: The Effective Delivery of Environmental Messages to Society. Akademika 85(1): 33-46.

Ross, N. (2006). Writing in the Information Age. English Today 22(3): 87-115.

Sert, O. 2005. The Functions of Code-Switching in ELT Classrooms. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XI, 8. http://iteslj.org/Articles/Sert-CodeSwitching Retrieved on: 23 June 2016.

Siti Hamin Stapa & Azianura Hani Shaari, 2013. Language Transformation and Innovation in Online Malaysian English. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities. 21: 131-144.

Tan, K. E. & Richardson, P. W. 2006. Writing Short Messages in English: Out of School Practices of Malaysian High School Students. Journal of Educational Research 45: 325-340

Werry, C. C. 1996. Linguistic and Interactional Features of Internet Relay Chat. In Computer-Mediated Communication: Linguistic, Social and Cross-Cultural Perspectives, edited by Herring, S. C., 47-63. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Wong, I. F. H. 1983. Simplification Features in the Structure of Colloquial Malaysian English. In Varieties of English in Southeast Asia, edited by Noss, R. B., 125-149. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional English Language Centre.

Zukerberg, M. 2012. Mark Zukerberg’s IPO Letter Describing Facebook’s Purpose, Values & Social Mission. http://prosperosworld.com/mark-zukerbergs-ipo-letter-describing-facebooks-purpose-values-social-mission/2012 Retrieved on: 1 June 2016.

Zaemah Abdul Kadir, Marlyna Maros & Bahiyah Abdul Hamid. 2012. Linguistic features in the online discussion forums. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2(3): 276- 281.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.