Application of Binomials in English and Persian (Aplikasi Binomial dalam Bahasa Inggeris dan Parsi)

Mohammad Abdollahi-Guilani, Tan Kim Hua

Abstract


Binomials or word pairs can present themselves differently in languages and cultures and this may result in difficulty in learning and teaching a foreign language. Binomials are formed both linguistically and non-linguistically. A thorough study indicates there are many factors involved in the ordering of words in a pair. The ordering preferences can range from the frequency of words, to semantic features, and to phonological principles. In addition, the significant role of gender should not be downplayed in arranging the components of a binomial. This study has taken advantage of a self-designed questionnaire to support the findings. The participants, aged 18-20, included 179 Iranian i.e. 95 male and 84 female undergraduate students who were asked to read a short paragraph about a couple and choose names not only for the couple but also for their siblings and children. In addition, in some cases, the respondents had to write names for some characters in the made-up story and determine what type of responsibility the children of the family should take up. The results of the study indicated that in addition to the phonological rules which greatly contributed to the precedency of a certain word in a nominal pair, there were other factors that could determine which element should stand first. These parameters are further discussed in the article. The findings of this research can target language teachers in general and English-Persian language teachers/learners in particular. Curriculum designers and lexicographers can also benefit from the findings when designing course materials and writing dictionaries, respectively.

Keywords:  Binomials; culture; markedness theory; Persian; word pair


Abstrak

Binomial atau perkataan berpasang boleh dizahirkan dalam pelbagai cara bergantung kepada bahasa dan budaya. Perbezaan ini mungkin menjadi salah satu halangan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa asing. Binomial boleh terbentuk secara linguistik dan sebaliknya. Kajian menyeluruh telah menunjukkan bahawa terdapat banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi susun atur setiap pasang binomial. Keutamaan susun atur boleh ditentukan berdasarkan kekerapan frekuensi, semantik dan prinsip-prinsip fonologi. Selain itu, peranan jantina tidak patut dipandang remeh dalam menentukan susun atur komponen binomial. Kajian ini telah menggunakan soal selidik bagi menyokong dapatan kajian. 179 orang responden terdiri daripada pelajar sarjanamuda warganegara Iran berumur dalam lingkungan 18-20 tahun. Mereka terbahagi kepada 95 orang lelaki dan 84 orang wanita. Mereka telah diminta untuk membaca satu perenggan pendek (cerita rekaan) mengenai satu pasangan dan kemudian telah diminta untuk menamakan pasangan tersebut, adik-beradik, dan anak-anak mereka. Sebahagian responden juga diminta untuk menulis nama bagi sebahagian karakter dalam cerita rekaan itu dan seterusnya menetapkan peranan yang akan dimainkan oleh anak-anak pasangan tersebut. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa terdapat faktor lain yang boleh menentukan susun atur elemen binomial selain peraturan fonologi yang merupakan penentu utama. Parameter-parameter ini dibincangkan lebih lanjut dalam artikel. Dapatan kajian ini boleh membantu guru bahasa secara amnya serta guru dan pelajar Parsi khususnya. Para ahli leksikografi dan penggubal kurikulum juga turut mendapat manafaat dalam aktiviti pengkamusan dan penulisan bahan kursus daripada hasil dapatan ini.

Kata kunci: Binomial; budaya; teori ‘markedness’; bahasa Parsi; kata berpasang


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