Malay Royal Institutions according to the Federal Constitution within the Context of Ethnic Relations in Malaysia (Institusi Raja-Raja Melayu menurut Perlembagaan Persekutuan dalam Konteks Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia)

Nazri Muslim, Azizi Umar

Abstract


The Malay Royal Institution has existed for centuries in the social system of the administration of Malay states in Malaysia. In this monarchy system, the sovereign has the absolute power in the state administration. However, during British colonization, the Sultan had to refer to the Resident as advisor except on matters related to Islam and Malay customs. The situation continued until the Malayan Union was introduced in 1946 when the Sultan was only authoritative on the Malay customs and Islam, while the state administration was held by the Governor. When the Malayan Union Constitution was replaced by the Malay Federation in 1948, the Sultan was given the rights to rule the country in accordance with the Constitutional Monarch. This study aims to analyze the perception of undergraduates at public higher education institutions regarding the Malay Royal Institution in the Federal Constitution within the context of ethnic relations in Malaysia.  It involved 422 respondents selected from 4 public higher education institutions in Malaysia. The data obtained through surveys was analysed using SPSS program. Descriptive statistics such as frequency was used to describe the background of the respondents and to analyze the students’ perception. The findings show that the acceptance level of the students on the position of Malay Royal Institutions in the constitution is relatively and generally high. Based on the findings, several recommendations are put forward to address issues related to the position of the Malay Royal Institution. This study also contributes to the field of knowledge as the methodology employed was quantitative which was different from previous studies which used qualitative methods.

 

Keywords: Malay Royal Institution;  Malaysia; Federal Constitution; students; public higher education institutions


ABSTRAK

Institusi Raja-raja Melayu telah wujud dalam sistem sosial di negeri-negeri Melayu sejak berabad-abad lamanya dan institusi ini terlibat secara langsung dalam pemerintahan. Menurut sistem beraja ini, raja mempunyai kuasa mutlak dalam pemerintahan. Namun selepas penjajahan British, Sultan perlu menerima nasihat daripada Residen kecuali dalam perkara yang menyentuh tentang agama Islam dan adat istiadat Melayu. Keadaan demikian berlanjutan sehingga diperkenalkan Malayan Union pada 1946 di mana Sultan hanya berkuasa dalam adat istiadat Melayu dan agama Islam sahaja dan kuasa pentadbiran negeri dipegang oleh Gabenor. Apabila Perlembagaan Malayan Union digantikan dengan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1948, Sultan telah diberi hak untuk mengambil tahu hal-hal berkenaan dengan pemerintahan negara dengan konsep Raja Berperlembagaan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis persepsi dalam kalangan pelajar Institut Pengajian Tinggi Awam (IPTA) terhadap Institusi Raja-Raja Melayu dalam Perlembagaan dalam konteks hubungan etnik di Malaysia. Kajian ini melibatkan seramai 422 responden yang dipilih dari empat buah IPTA. Data kajian yang diperoleh melalui soal selidik dianalisis menggunakan program SPSS. Statistik deskriptif seperti frekuensi, digunakan bagi menerangkan latar belakang responden dan menganalisis persepsi pelajar. Hasil kajian menunjukkan penerimaan pelajar terhadap kedudukan Institusi Raja-Raja Melayu adalah tinggi secara keseluruhannya. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian, beberapa cadangan telah dikemukakan bagi menangani isu berkaitan dengan kedudukan Institusi Raja-Raja Melayu. Seterusnya, kajian ini turut menyumbang kepada bidang ilmu kerana metodologi berbentuk kuantitatif yang digunakan berbeza dengan kebanyakan kajian sebelum ini yang dilakukan secara kualitatif serta menghasilkan satu instrumen soal selidik untuk kajian selanjutnya.

 

Kata kunci: Institusi Raja-Raja Melayu;, Malaysia; Perlembagaan Persekutuan; pelajar; institusi pengajian tinggi awam


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