Dilemma Kemiskinan: Falsafah, Budaya dan Strategi (Poverty Dilemma: Philosophy, Culture and Strategies)

Kartini Aboo Talib @ Khalid

Abstract


Artikel ini mengupas konsep kemiskinan yang perlu dinilai semula kerana faktor multidimensi yang menghambat usaha membasmi kemiskinan. Hambatan ini disebabkan tafsiran kemiskinan seringkali diukur dengan pendekatan ekonomi iaitu pendapatan isi rumah dan kekayaan atau sumber. Dilema dan punca kemiskinan adalah melepasi rasional ekonomi, maka pembolehubah kemiskinan harus merangkumkan keupayaan yang kurang atau lemah seperti ketiadaan akses kesihatan, pendidikan, infrastruktur, kebebasan politik dan hak asasi, sumber dan sebagainya. Perbincangan turut mengetengahkan kategori kemiskinan yang perlu dibaiki dengan mengenalpasti kategori kemiskinan jenis lain seperti invisible poor, vulnerable poor, kemiskinan kronik dan miskin bandar. Setiap satu kategori ini memperlihatkan konteks kemiskinan yang berbeza dari aspek kelas, komuniti dan spatial. Makalah ini menggariskan strategi pendekatan multidimensi berasaskan falsafah pemikiran tentang kemiskinan. Budaya kemiskinan dan stereotaip dianalisis dengan kritikal dan merumuskan bahawa kategori miskin ini perlu mengambil kira aspek sosialisasi, kefahaman, dan sekitaran. Tambahan lagi, artikel ini menegaskan penglibatan berterusan kerajaan dan badan bukan kerajaan melalui program intervensi untuk mengubah budaya dan kitaran gasar kemiskinan ini adalah amat perlu bagi memastikan usaha ini adalah konsisten bersesuaian dengan perubahan keadaan semasa dari aspek pendapatan isi rumah, bilangan ahli keluarga, inflasi, pengangguran, kesihatan, usia tua, dan sebagainya. Tambahan lagi, memandangkan bantuan kemiskinan diurus di Baitulmal, pejabat zakat negeri, dan badan kebajikan adalah wajar bagi institusi ini turut mengikut peredaran perubahan terhadap tafsiran kemiskinan, jenis bantuan, kelayakan bantuan dan sebagainya bagi membolehkan hak si miskin diagih dan dipelihara.

Kata kunci: Kemiskinan; kategori; strategi; budaya; multidimensi

 

ABSTRACT

The discourse in this article highlights the needs for poverty to be redefined and reconceptualized due to multidimensional factors that deter the efforts to alleviate poverty. The common measurement to identify poverty is always within the lens of rational economic approach based on income and wealth or resource-based. Poverty dilemma and causes are beyond economic rationality, thus poverty variables for redefinition must include capability deprivation such as limited or deprived access to health, education, infrastructure, political freedom and human rights, resources and many more. Poverty categories need to be refocused and must identify other categories such as the invisible poor, vulnerable poor, cronic poverty, and urban poverty. Each category represents different contexts in term of class, community and spatial. This article outlines the strategies of multidimensional approach to poverty that are grounded in the philosophy of poverty. Poverty culture and stereotypes are analysed critically and it justifies that poverty categories must consider the socialisation aspect, knowledge, and contexts. Additionally, such perspective also demands consistent intervention programs from the government and non-government organisations in order to change the poverty culture and vicious cycle. In fact, intervention programs must be able to cater contemporary changes to income level, size of family, inflation, unemployment, health issue, aged factor, etc. Most welfare assistances are managed by the Baitulmal, state alms, and state welfare agency; hence it is mandatory for these institutions to equip themselves with the current issue on poverty definition, category, type of assistance, and entitlement to ensure that the rights of the poor is delivered and protected.

Keywords: Poverty; category; strategy; culture; multidimension


Full Text:

PDF

References


Asian Development Bank. 2014. Urban Poverty in Asia. http://www.adb.org/print/node/59778 Tarikh capaian: 10 Januari 2016.

Auletta, K. 1982. The Underclass. New York: Random House.

Banfield, E. 1970. The Unheavenly City. Boston: Little Brown.

Corcoran, M., Greg J. D., Gerald G., & Gurin, P. 1985. Myth and Reality: The causes and persistence of poverty. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 4(4): 516-536.

Clark, R. F. 2002. The War on Poverty: History, Selected Programs and Ongoing Impact. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc.

Denison J. 2016. Inclusive Development for Urban Poor and Bottom 40% Communties in Malaysia. UKM Ethnic Studies Paper Series, No. 49. Institut Kajian Etnik (KITA): Bangi.

Dworkin, R. 1981. What is equality? Part 2: Equality of Resources. Philosophy and Public Affairs 10(3): 283-345.

Goodwin, L. 1983. Causes and Curses of Welfare. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Hafizah Abu Samah & Wan Kamal Mujani. 2015. Prosiding Seminar the Bottom 40: Isu dan Penyelesaian. Fakulti Pengajian Islam, UKM: Bangi

Harrington, M. 1962. The Other America. New York: MacMillan Company.

Haveman, R. 1987. Public Policy and Poverty Research: The Great Society and The Social Sciences. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Howlett, M. & Ramesh, M. 1995. Studying Public Policy: Policy Cycles and Policy Subsystems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Indre Gajdosikiene. 2004. Oscar Lewis’s culture of poverty: Critique and further development. Kulturus Sociologija 1:88-96.

Kakwani Nanak. 2006. In Response: Poverty and Wellbeing. In the Human Poverty Index: a Multidimensional Measure. Poverty in Focus, International Poverty Centre UNDP: 22-23. http://undp-povertycentre.org Tarikh capaian: 20 Januari 2016.

Katz, M. B. 1989. The Undeserving Poor: From the War on Poverty to the War on Welfare. New York: Pantheon Books.

Lewis, O. 1966. The culture of poverty. Scientific American 215: 19-25.

Lauer, R. H. 1971. The scientific legitimization of fallacy: Neutralizing social change theory. American Sociological Review 36: 881-889

Lotter, H. P. 2011. Poverty, Ethics and Justice. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Miller, W. 1958. Lower class society as a generating milieu of gang delinquency. Journal of Social Issues 14(3): 5-19.

Norzita Jamil & Siti Hadijah Che Mat. 2014. Realiti kemiskinan: Satu kajian teoretikal. Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia 48(1):167-177.

Nurhasanah. 2012. Zakat di Malaysia dalam perspektif ekonomi. Al-Iqtishad 4 (1): 81-100.

Nathanson, S. 1997. Economic Justice. USA: Pearson.

Piven, F. Fox. & Cloward A. R. 1971. Regulating the Poor: The Function of Public Welfare. New York: Random House Inc.

Palumbo, D. J. 1987. The Politics of Policy Evaluation. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Rafael Perez Ribas & Ana Flavia Machado. 2007. Distinguishing Chronic Poverty from Transient Poverty in Brazil: Developing a Model for Pseudo-Panel Data. Working Paper #36 http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/IPCWorkingPaper36.pdf. Tarikh capaian: 26 November 2015.

Ranis, G., Francis S. & Emma Samman. 2006. Human Development: Beyond the human development index. Journal of Human Development 7 (3): 323-358.

Rawls, J. 1971. A Theory of Justice. USA: Harvard University Press.

Sabatier, P. 1999. Theories of the Policy Process. USA: Westview Press.

Sakiko Fukuda-Parr. 2006. The Human Poverty Index: a multidimensional measure. Poverty in Focus, International Poverty Centre UNDP: pp.7-9. http://undp-povertycentre.org Tarikh capaian: 20 Januari 2016.

Sen, A. 1999. Development of Freedom. UK: Oxford.

Sen, A. 2009. The Idea of Justice. USA: Belknap, Harvard University Press.

Suraiya Ishak & Ahmad Raflis Omar. 2011. Paradigma baru dalam pelaksanaan tanggungjawab sosial syarikat milik kerajaan. Akademika 81(3): 75-81

UNESCO. 2016. Learning to live together: Poverty. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/socialand-human-sciences/themes/internationalmigration/glossary/poverty/ Tarikh capaian: 24 November 2015.

UNDP. 2015. Multidimensional Poverty Index. http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/multidimensionalpoverty-index-mpi dan http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/table-6-multidimensional-povertyindex-mpi Tarikh capaian: 24 November 2015.

Weimer, D.L., & Vining A.R. 1999. Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.

Wolf, J., Edward L. & Zur-Szpiro, E.2015. A Philosophical Review of Poverty. Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) Report, http:www.jrf.org.uk. Tarikh capaian: 22 Januari 2016.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.