Resilience as Mediator in the Relationship between Family Functioning and Depression among Adolescents from Single Parent Families (Resilien sebagai Mediator dalam Hubungan di antara Kefungsian Keluarga dan Kemurungan dalam kalangan Remaja dari Keluarga Tunggal)

Ng Ying Yee, Wan Shahrazad Wan Sulaiman



Family dysfunction makes many adolescents experience problems in adjusting themselves in single-parent families. Resilient adolescents cope by interpreting life in single-parent family as a meaningful and empowering transition while non-resilient adolescents often experience anxiety and depression. This study aims to examine the mediator effect of resilience in the relationship between family functioning and depression among adolescents from single parent families. The participants were 232 adolescents who came from single parent families, with ages 13 to 18 years old. Data were collected from 8 secondary schools in Klang Valley using a set of questionnaire consisting the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales III, The Resilience Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Pearson correlation analysis showed that all the variables in this study were significantly correlated with each other. Results showed that resilience significantly mediated the relationship between family adaptability and depression. However, resilience partially mediated the relationship between family cohesion and depression. The strong emotional bonding among family members can serve as a significant social support for family members. When adolescents have adequate social support from their family, it will foster the process of resilience reintegration. Hence, family cohesion has a stronger relationship with resilience compared to family adaptability that emphasised on family’s leadership, rules and roles. This implies that adolescents from single parent family should be assisted in strengthening and building their resilience despite staying in the dysfunctional family to reduce their depression tendencies.


Keywords: Family functioning; resilience; depression; adolescents; single parent family



Ketidakfungsian keluarga menyukarkan remaja menyesuaikan diri dalam keluarga tunggal. Remaja resilien berdaya tindak dengan menginterpretasi kehidupan dalam keluarga tunggal sebagai bermakna manakala remaja tidak resilien kebiasaannya mengalami kebimbangan dan kemurungan. Kajian ini bertujuan menguji resilien sebagai mediator dalam hubungan di antara kefungsian keluarga dan kemurungan dalam kalangan remaja dari keluarga tunggal.  Responden kajian adalah 232 remaja dari keluarga tunggal dengan umur di antara 13 hingga 18 tahun. Data dikumpul dari 8 sekolah menengah di Lembah Klang menggunakan satu set soal selidik mengandungi Skala Penyesuaian dan Kohesi Keluarga III, Skala Resilien dan Inventori Kemurungan Beck-II. Analisis korelasi Pearson menunjukkan semua pembolehubah kajian berkorelasi secara signifikan. Keputusan juga menunjukkan bahawa resilien berperanan secara signifikan sebagai mediator dalam hubungan di antara penyesuaian keluarga dan kemurungan. Walau bagaimanapun, resilien hanya berperanan secara separa sebagai mediator dalam hubungan di antara kohesi keluarga dan kemurungan. Hubungan emosi yang kuat di antara ahli-ahli keluarga boleh menjadi sumber sokongan sosial. Apabila remaja mempunyai sokongan sosial yang mencukupi, ia akan menggalakkan proses perkembangan resilien. Sehubungan itu, kohesi keluarga mempunyai hubungan yang lebih kuat berbanding adaptasi keluarga kerana ia menekankan kepada kepimpinan, peraturan dan peranan keluarga. Ini memberi implikasi bahawa remaja dari keluarga tunggal perlu dibantu dalam memperkasakan dan membina resilien apabila berada dalam keluarga disfungsi untuk mengurangkan kecenderungan ke arah kemurungan.


Kata kunci: Kefungsian keluarga; resilien; kemurungan; remaja; keluarga tunggal

Full Text:



Agaibi, C. E., & Wilson, J. P. 2005. Trauma, PTSD, and Resilience: A review of the literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 6(3): 195-216.

Amato, P. R. 2001. Children of divorce in the 1990s: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology 15: 355-370.

Arpawong, T. E., Sun, P., Chang, M. C., Gallaher, P., Pang, Z., Guo, Q., Johnson, C. A., & Unger, J. 2010. Family and personal protective factors moderate the effects of adversity and negative disposition on smoking among Chinese adolescents. Substance Use & Misuse 45(9): 1367-1389

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. 1986. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51(6): 1173-1182.

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. 1996. BDI-II, Beck Depression Inventory: Manual. 2nd Edition. Boston: Harcourt Brace.

Besharat, M. 2007. Resiliency, vulnerable and mental health. Journal of Psychological Science 6(24): 373-383.

Boyd, J., & Eckert, P. 2002. Creating resilient educators. Tasmania: Global Learning Communities Manual.

Cohen, D. M., Lumley, M. A., Naar-King, S., Partridge, T., & Cakan, N. 2004. Child behavior problems and family functioning as predictors of adherence & glycemic control in economically disadvantaged children with type 1 diabetes: A prospective study. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 29(3): 171-184.

Department of Statistics. 2010. Education and Social Characteristics of the Population 2010. Retrieved on: 10 February 2015.

Department of Social Welfare Malaysia. 2012. Statistical Report 2011. Malaysia: Department of Social Welfare.

Edwards, B. & Clarke, V. 2004. The psychological impact of a cancer diagnosis on families: The influence of family functioning and patients' illness characteristics on depression and anxiety. Psycho-Oncology 13(8): 562-576.

Eldar-Avidan, D., Haj-Yahia, M. M., & Greenbaum, C. W. 2009. Divorce is a part of my life. Resilience, survival, and vulnerability: Young adults’ perception of the implications of parental divorce. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 35(1): 30–46.

Gladding, S. T. 2002. Family therapy: History, theory and practice. 3rd Edition. Columbus: Pearson Education, Inc.

Greenberger, E. & Chen, C. 1996. Perceived family relationships and depressed mood in early and late adolescence: A comparison of European and Asian Americans. Developmental Psychology 32: 707-716.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. 2010. Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. 7th Edition. New Jersey: Person Education Inc.

Amran Hassan, Fatimah Yusoof, & Khadijah Alavi. 2012. The relationship between parent skill and family functioning to psychological well-being of parent and children. International Conferences on Humanity, History and Society 34: 152-158.

Hetherington, E. M., & Stanley-Hagan, M. 1999. The adjustment of children with divorced parents: A risk and resiliency perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40(1): 129-140.

Hjemdal, O., Friborg, O., Stiles, T. C., Rosenvinge, J. H., & Martinussen, M. 2006. Resilience predicting psychiatric symptoms: A prospective study of protective factors and their role in adjustment to stressful life events. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 13: 194-201.

Kim, S. K., & Kang, M. H. 2005. The path-analysis among risk-protective factors on the resilience of children from divorced family. Korean Journal of Child Studies 26: 261-278.

Kumpfer, K. L. 1999. Factors and processes contributing to resilience: The resilience framework. In Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations, edited by Meyer D. Glantz & Jeannette L. Johnson, 179-224. New York: Plenum Press.

Masten, A. S., Monn, A. R., & Supkoff, L. M. 2011. Resilience in children and adolescents. In Resilience and mental health: Challenge across the lifespan, edited by Steven M. Southwick, Brett T. Litz, Dennis Charney, & Matthew J. Friedman, 103-120. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Norani Mohd Salleh & Mohd Sham Kassim. 2000. How Do Young Adolescents Spend Their Waking Hours at Night. Akademika 56: 135-146.

Olson, D. H., & Gorall, D. M. 2003. Circumplex model of marital and family systems. In Normal family processes: Growing diversity and complexity, edited by F. Walsh, 514–548. New York: Guilford.

Olson, D. H., Portner, J., & Lavee, Y. 1985. FACES 111 manual. Unpublished manuscript. University of Minnesota.

Pérez-López, F. R., Pérez-Roncero, G., Fernández-Iñarrea, J., Fernández-Alonso, A. M., Chedraui, P., & Llaneza, P. 2014. Resilience, depressed mood, and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Menopause 21(2): 159-164.

Pinquart, M. 2009. Moderating effects of dispositional resilience on associates between hassles and psychological distress. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 30: 53-60.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. 2004. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments & Computers 36(4): 717-731.

Retzlaff, R., Hornig, S., Müller, B., Gitta, R., & Pietz, J. 2006. Family sense of coherence and resilience: A study on families with children with mental and physical disabilities. The Practice of Child Psychology and Child Psychiatry 55(1): 36-52.

Rutter, M. 1987. Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 57: 316–331.

Sarmiento, I. A., & Cardemil, E. V. 2009. Family functioning and depression in low-income Latino couples. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 35(4): 432–445.

Schönberger, M., Ponsford, J., Olver, J., & Ponsford, M. 2010. A longitudinal study of family functioning after TBI and relatives' emotional status. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 20(6): 813-829.

Spies, G. & Seedat, S. 2014. Depression and resilience in women with HIV and early life stress: Does trauma play a mediating role? A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 4: e004200.

Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. 1993. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement 1: 165-178.

Walsh, A. 1996. The concept of family resilience: Crisis and challenge. Family Process 35(3): 261–281.

Ying, L., Wu, X., Lin, C., & Jiang, L. 2014. Traumatic severity and trait resilience as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. Plos One 9(2): e89401.

Zargar, F., Ashori, A., Asgharipour, N., & Aghebati, A. 2007. Family functioning in patients with MDD compared with patients without psychiatric disorders in Isfahan. Journal of Behavior Research 5(2): 99-106.

Zill, N., Morrison, D. R., & Coiro, M. J. 1993. Long-term effects of parental divorce on parent-child relationships, adjustment, and achievement in young adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology 7: 91-103.


  • There are currently no refbacks.