Pengaruh Faktor Individu, Keluarga dan Persekitaran Sosial Terhadap Tingkah Laku Penyalahgunaan Bahan dalam Kalangan Remaja (The Influence of Individual, Familial and Social Environmental Factors Towards Substance Abuse Behavior among Adolescents)

Rozmi Ismail, Nor Azri Ahmad, Fauziah Ibrahim, Salina Nen

Abstract


Prevalen salah guna bahan dalam kalangan remaja semakin meningkat setiap tahun. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti hubungan dan sejauhmana faktor-faktor berikut iaitu individu, keluarga dan persekitaran sosial (di sekolah dan komuniti) memberi pengaruh terhadap tingkah laku salah guna bahan. Kajian ini menggunakan metod survei melibatkan pengedaran soal selidik ke atas 480 responden remaja daripada populasi remaja berisiko tinggi dalam penyalahgunaan bahan. Responden yang terpilih adalah berumur di antara 13-17 tahun dan majoritinya adalah lelaki. Analisis korelasi dan regresi berganda telah digunakan untuk menguji hubungan dan mengenalpasti pemboleh ubah peramal terhadap gejala penyalahgunaan bahan. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan pemboleh ubah persekitaran sosial (keadaan berisiko di sekolah) dapat menerangkan sebanyak 45.5% daripada varians dalam tingkah laku salah guna bahan dan menjadi peramal yang dominan. Keputusan seterusnya melalui analisis regresi linear berganda mengesahkan bahawa model regresi menunjukkan pemboleh ubah individu, keluarga dan persekitaran sosial adalah signifikan dalam model tersebut dan menjadi penyumbang utama kepada salahguna bahan dalam kalangan remaja. Kajian ini merumuskan bahawa domain faktor persekitaran sosial amat penting dalam memahami keterlibatan remaja dalam penyalahgunaan bahan dan perlu diberi perhatian dalam merangka dan membina program pencegahan. Implikasi kajian ini mencadangkan bahawa sebarang dasar atau pembinaan modul pencegahan salah guna bahan dalam kalangan remaja perlu memfokus kepada aspek mengurangkan risiko dalam faktor persekitaran sosial seperti keadaan sekolah dan faktor komuniti yang tidak kondusif.

Kata kunci : Remaja; penyalahgunaan bahan; tingkah laku berisiko; faktor persekitaran sosial; program pencegahan

   

ABSTRAK

The prevalence of substance abuse among adolescents in Malaysia has increased significantly. The current study is aimed to examine the relationship between individual, familial and social environment factors and to identify which factors are good predictors in explaining the involvement of adolescents in substance abuse behavior. This study used a survey method which involved the distribution of questionnaires to 480 respondents who were identified as high-risk youth from the population. The age of respondents between was between 13-17 years and majority were male.Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used to identify correlation and predictor variable. The results showed that social environment variable (i.e. school environment) can explain as much as 45.5 % of the total variance in substance abuse activities and becomes the dominant predictor. Multiple linear regression analysis confirmed variables such as individual, family and social environment are significant variables in the model and are major contributing factors to the drug-related behavior among adolescents. This study concluded that the domain of social environmental factors is very important in understanding the involvement of adolescents in substance abuse and should be given attention in the design and development of relevant prevention programs. The implications of this study suggest that any policy or development of modules that guide substance abuse prevention among adolescents should focus on the aspect of reducing the risks of social-environmental factors such as improving the condition of the schools and creating conducive environment in the communities.

 

Keyword: Adolescent; substance abuse; risk behavior; socio-environmental factor; prevention program


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